By Chris Rojek
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Extra resources for Ways of Escape: Modern Transformations in Leisure and Travel
For by presenting the state as a necessary condition for the emergence of market society, private interest is revealed as a socially determined interest. It follows that while the wants of individuals certainly belong to the individuals concerned, they spring from social conditions which cannot be reduced to the expressions of individual will. This was, of course, the first lesson taught by critical political economy in the nineteenth century. From Marx to the sociology of Durkheim, intellectual life was distinguished by a growing awareness of the structural dimensions of personal behaviour.
This can be illustrated in three ways. Firstly, it offered a 'scientific' analysis of the passions and pointed to the dire consequences of their unrestricted growth. Secondly, it adduced the living conditions of the poor as 'proof of the effects of the absence of cultivation and the inhibition of Reason. Thirdly, it identified the remedy of 'moral restraint' for cultivated sections of society to put into practice. Although Malthus was right to identify population growth as a pressure on natural resources, his great weakness was to fail to predict the changes in agricultural technology which would permit intensified cultivation and produce sufficient food to meet the increased demand.
It moved 'to replace them', remarked Polyani (1944: 163) 'by a different type of organization, an atomistic and individualistic one'. 16 Ways of Escape PLEASURE, REASON AND THE MARKET Pleasure could not be ignored in market society. For one thing it inherited the homo duplex model of man which recognized bodily pleasures as essential to the state of being human. Furthermore, as market society developed it became more and more dependent upon the principle that the experience of consumption must be pleasurable.