By Leonard M. Chacha
Within the fresh previous, Bantu languages have performed asignificant function within the improvement of the speculation anddescription of linguistic tone. easily placed, the Bantufamily has supplied a checking out flooring for the theoriesof tone. This learn was once stimulated by way of the actual fact thatalthough Bantu languages have made a tremendouscontribution within the sector of tone, it truly is ironic thatthere continues to be shortage of knowledge on a few Bantulanguages comparable to Kuria. Kuria, as one among theunderstudied languages, may supply furtherinsights into the tonal area. moreover, theKuria language exhibits indicators of being in rapidtransition. almost immediately, so much Kuria audio system useKiswahili (a rigidity language) because the dominant language.This learn exhibits that the Kuria verbal process has apredictable tone procedure the place the location of thehigh tone will depend on the phonological form andmorphological class of the verb. This isillustrated by way of tones within the finite and infinitivalverbs, affirmative and negation tenses, and tonepatterns within the reduplication varieties. This studyshould be of curiosity to students of Bantu tone andanyone else drawn to the Kuria language.
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Additional info for Verbal Tone in Kuria
Non-assertive /βa - a - heetok - a/ sm - t - remember - fv they-past-remember-fv βaa[heetόka] “they have (already) remembered” c. Grammaticalized /ne - βa - aká - heetok - e - e/ f - sm - t - remember - pf - fv focus-they-past-remember-perfective-fv mβaaká[héétόkée] “they used to remember” (Untimed Past Anterior) (Habitual Past Focused) The tense in (39c) does not have a non-assertive equivalent. 2 Negation There are two ways of marking morphological negation in Kuria. The most common way is by using a single negative marker, /ta-/.
Class prefix 3. root 4. extension 5. final vowel These morphemes occur in a fixed order. 7) which, when added to the root, extend both the form and meaning of the root. The morphemes shown in (32) above can be categorized as follows: (33) 1 + 2 augmented prefix 1 – 5 extended verb 3 – 4 base 3 – 5 stem The augmented prefix is made up of the augment and the class prefix. The extended verb is a verb which has been expanded through affixation. The base is made up of the root, and the extension suffixes, without the final vowel.
Root 4. extension 5. final vowel These morphemes occur in a fixed order. 7) which, when added to the root, extend both the form and meaning of the root. The morphemes shown in (32) above can be categorized as follows: (33) 1 + 2 augmented prefix 1 – 5 extended verb 3 – 4 base 3 – 5 stem The augmented prefix is made up of the augment and the class prefix. The extended verb is a verb which has been expanded through affixation. The base is made up of the root, and the extension suffixes, without the final vowel.