Download Understanding Syntax (Understanding Language) by Maggie Tallerman PDF

By Maggie Tallerman

Assuming no past wisdom of linguistics, realizing Syntax, 3rd variation discusses and illustrates the key phrases and ideas necessary to the learn of sentence constitution within the world's languages. note sessions resembling "noun" and "verb" are defined, and the homes of those different types are mentioned. you'll find what's intended by way of the phrases "subject" and "object," what a finite verb is, and what relative clauses appear like. innovations similar to "gender," "case," and "subordination" are brought and exemplified, with vast representation from English and lots of different languages. Grammatical structures and relationships in the clause are totally lined, together with verb serialization, ergativity, and head- and dependent-marking grammars. This new version has been up to date and revised to fulfill the wishes of modern scholars. tricky issues are given fuller rationalization, references were up-to-date, and significant talents are taught, similar to the right way to learn examples from languages except English.

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Example text

The normal position for a direct object in English is immediately following the verb. I discuss these technical terms in more detail in Chapter 2, but these features will help you identify objects in the next section. Please review this section before moving on if you weren’t previously familiar with the grammatical term ‘object’. We return to word order in Chapter 6. 1 involved simply reordering the elements of a sentence. But syntactic changes can have much more radical results than this. 1, in the discussion of Indonesian, introduced the idea of promotion processes – making a word or phrase more prominent in the sentence.

The student I lent the book to’s roomâ•‚mate said she’d left. Each example in (53) shows that ‑’s actually attaches to the end of a whole phrase, not to the single noun at the end of the phrase: we know that the door doesn’t have children, and that the answer to (53b) couldn’t be November. And to in (53c) isn’t even a noun (you may find this example a little odd, because it belongs in spoken rather than written English. ) Native speakers also know that you can’t attach the ‑’s to the noun it logically seems to belong to: *What was that guy’s who retired last month name?

So given a sentence like Kim couldn’t swim we can turn it into Lee thought that Kim couldn’t swim, then I said that Lee thought that Kim couldn’t swim, and so on. This means it’s never possible to construct a ‘longest sentence’. I end this chapter with two short practical demonstrations that syntactic structure really exists, in other words that speakers of a language share the same mental representations of this structure. First, look at the examples in (48): (48) a. I charged up the battery. b.

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