By Dario Paladini
This commonly illustrated ebook courses readers by utilizing ultrasoundвЂ“including sleek 3D imagesвЂ“to notice and establish delivery defects in utero. updated recommendation is available at the differential prognosis of a variety of fetal abnormalities. through the e-book, ultrasound pictures are matched with genuine beginning photos or abortus specimens. every one anomaly is mentioned in a standardized, easy-to-follow layout that coversВ attribute gains, pathogenesis and etiology, differential prognosis, diagnosis, and management.
- Anatomic survey of the fetus and its dating to gestational age
- Central and peripheral anxious procedure anomalies
- Craniofacial and neck anomalies
- Cystic hygroma and non-immune hydrops fetalis
- Congenital middle disease
- Thoracic anomalies
- Anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract and stomach wall
- Urinary tract anomalies
- Skeletal dysplasias and muscular anomalies: a diagnostic algorithm
- Chromosomal and non-chromosomal syndromes
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Additional info for Ultrasound of Congenital Fetal Anomalies
An association with facial clefts and other extra-CNS anomalies (especially congenital heart disease and urinary anomalies) has been described, often in the context of chromosomal and genetic syndromes. Risk of chromosomal anomalies. This is high, with up to 35% of cases being associated with aneuploidy, mainly trisomies 18 and 13. qxd 34 3/27/2007 3:18 PM Page 34 ULTRASOUND OF CONGENITAL FETAL ANOMALIES Risk of non-chromosomal syndromes. This is high. The most common syndromes that can be associated with DWM are:13 • Walker–Warburg syndrome: look for → DWM + eye anomalies (microphthalmia and cataract), other CNS anomalies (lissencephaly, midline anomalies, microcephaly, and cephalocele) • Meckel–Gruber syndrome: look for → DWM + encephalocele, polydactyly, and polycystic kidneys • Aicardi syndrome: look for → DWM + agenesis of the corpus callosum and vertebral defects • Neu–Laxova syndrome: look for → DWM + lissencephaly, microcephaly, proptosis, diffuse joint contractures, subcutaneous tissue edema, and intrauterine growth retardation Obstetric management.
Its degree (borderline, moderate, or severe), and whether it is associated with any cerebral or/and extracerebral anomaly. Except for cases associated with infectious lesions, fetal karyotyping should be offered to the parents. The contribution of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the etiologic diagnosis of ventriculomegaly has not been the subject of many studies, and it is difficult to establish its role on the basis of the small and heterogeneous series investigated. 9 Although it is unclear whether or not this finding represents an independent risk factor for chromosomal anomalies, it seems sensible to offer karyotyping.
Ultrasound diagnosis. We report the most common sonographic patterns of ventriculomegaly. Ventriculomegaly associated with CNS malformations. As stated above, ventriculomegaly is associated with typical malformation patterns of the CNS. 11a), ventriculomegaly is associated with a small posterior fossa, a small dysmorphic cerebellum, an effaced cisterna magna, and a spinal defect with myelomeningocele; for a conclusive diagnosis, the latter defect must be detected. 11b). 11c) with ‘parallel bodies’ which are shifted laterally, and upward displacement of the third ventricle suggest agenesis of the corpus callosum, the presence of which must be confirmed on coronal and sagittal views.