By Hart Isaacs
Over the last 20 years, the extraordinary advances in imaging concepts, equivalent to ultrasound and speedy or ultra-fast MRI, have ended in the analysis of more and more tumors on the prenatal degree. This revised, abundantly illustrated moment version of Tumors of the Fetus and youngster: An Atlas offers an updated account of the medical and pathological good points of neoplastic sickness and tumor-like stipulations within the fetus, neonate, and boy or girl and discusses significant tumor experiences and circumstances from through the international. the total diversity of tumors is roofed, with every one bankruptcy reviewing the occurrence, medical findings, cytogenetics, pathology, radiology, remedy, and diagnosis. The objective is to permit pathologists and clinicians to realize a transparent realizing of those lesions in order that an accurate analysis should be completed and applicable remedy, initiated.
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Additional resources for Tumors of the fetus and infant : an atlas
16). Often it appears encapsulated, but the tumor Uniform, spindle-shaped cells invading fat and surrounding blood vessels. H&E; ϫ 120.
In contrast to hemangiomas, vascular malformations do not express certain cellular markers, such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor, type IV collagenase, and basic fibroblast growth factor . Vascular malformations are developmental errors and consist of dysplastic vessels lined by inactive appearing endothelium. 5). Vascular malformations consist of large endothelial-lined channels with varying amounts of smooth muscle within their walls. They may involve a large body area such as an extremity, producing gigantism of that part.
They may involve the skin, cerebellum, retina, spinal cord, and liver. Adenomas or cystic disease of the 37 38 3. 1. Soft tissue tumors and tumorlike conditions of the fetus and infant: distinguishing features. 1. (Continued) Tumor Histological findingsa Gross findings Neurofibroma Firm, pale, homogeneous, light gray-white tissue Plexiform neurofibroma Shiny, pale, gray-white wormlike nodules Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) Soft, friable, pale tan-gray tissue fragments; foci of necrosis and hemorrhage Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor Tumor in craniofacial bones or soft tissues; tan, firm with black streaks or irregular pigmented areas Ectomesenchymoma (gangliorhabdomyosarcoma) Light tan-gray to white, bulging cut surface; gelatinous areas Polyphenotypic small-cell tumor Soft, friable, pale gray, gelatinous Gingival granular cell tumor (epulis) Mucosal covered tan-gray nodule(s) Proliferative myositis and fasciitis Soft to firm gray-white nodule Small round to oval Schwann cells, wavy neurites, pale myxoid stroma; S-100 ϩ, Leu-7 ϩ, myelin basic protein ϩ Tortuous, pale myxoid, enlarged nerve fibers with proliferation of nerve fibers and Schwann cells S-100 ϩ, Leu-7 ϩ, myelin basic protein ϩ Small blue-cell tumor with indistinct cytoplasm, round or oval nuclei, fine or clumped chromatin, small nucleoli; many mitoses; Ϯ rosettes; vim ϩ, HBA7 ϩ, S-100 ϩ, NSE ϩ; EM: small primitive cells Ϯ neurosecretory granules and neurofilaments; t(11;22) (q24; q11-12) Irregular cystic spaces with small, round, dark neuroblasts and larger pigmented melanocytes; NSE ϩ; synaptophysin ϩ; HMB45 ϩ; dopamine-␤-hydroxylase ϩ; EM: neuroblasts with neurosecretory granules and melanocytes with melanosomes Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cells; ganglioneuroma and/or neuroblastoma cells; Schwann cells; rhabdomyosarcoma cells: muscle markers ϩ; Schwann cells S-100 ϩ; ganglion cells and neuroblasts NSE ϩ; EM: rhabdomyosarcoma: myofilaments; neuroblastoma: neurofilaments and neurosecretory granules Nests and cords of small epithelial-like cells; neural, rhabdoid, skeletal muscle and PNET components; vim ϩ; cytokeratin ϩ; NSE ϩ; actin ϩ; EM: Ϯ neurosecretory granules, intermediate filaments Polygonal cells with prominent PAS ϩ granules, regular, round, basophilic nuclei; vim ϩ; S-100 –; muscle markers –; EM: membrane-bound pleomorphic cytoplasmic granules; cell membranes; intermediate filaments Fibroblasts; giant cells resembling ganglion cells; many mitoses; pale myxoid stroma; inflammatory cells; ganglion-like cells; vim ϩ; actin ϩ; CD68 ϩ; EM: cells with fibroblastic, myofibroblastic and histiocytic differentiation Reactivity (ϩ, –, or Ϯ) with the following immunoperoxidoses is described: des, desmin; vim, vimentin; NSE, neuron-specific enolase; PAS, periodic acid–Schiff reagent.