Download Tropical Alpine Environments: Plant Form and Function by Philip W. Rundel, Alan P. Smith, F. C. Meinzer PDF

By Philip W. Rundel, Alan P. Smith, F. C. Meinzer

Tropical alpine environments (at altitudes above the closed cover wooded area and under the restrict of plants) current an strange set of complicated stresses for plant species. not like temperate alpine environments, the place there are detailed seasons of favorable and unfavourable stipulations for progress, tropical alpine habitats current summer time stipulations on a daily basis and iciness stipulations each evening. therefore, tropical alpine plant species have developed exact varieties for dealing with the sort of antagonistic setting. utilizing examples from everywhere in the tropics, this interesting account reports the original shape and sensible relationships of tropical alpine vegetation, studying either their physiological ecology and inhabitants biology.

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A relatively low tradewind inversion in the Hawaiian Islands produces peak rainfall amounts at about 1600 m elevation (Price 1983). Maximum precipitation in the Venezuelan Andes falls at 2000-2500 m (Monasterio & Reyes 1980; Sarmiento 1986), and at 2200-3000 m on the East African high volcanoes. 4). There are Tropical alpine climates 29 exceptions to this pattern, however, in which precipitation does not appear to decline at higher elevations on the slope. Such conditions have been reported for the llanos-facing exposures of the Andes near Merida in Venezuela (Sarmiento 1986) and on Mount Kinabalu in North Borneo (Smith 1980a).

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Moving southwards from the paramo habitats of Ecuador into the puna of the antiplano region of Peru and Bolivia, there is a distinctive gradient in several characteristics of rainfall. First, mean annual precipitation drops steadily from the 1300 mm present around Quito to 700-800 mm in central and northern Peru to 560 mm at La Paz andfinallybelow 300 mm 33 Tropical alpine climates PUNA •Cajamarca (2621m, 7°S) 716mm yr1 oCuzco (3312m, 14°S) 750mm yr1 *Oruro (3705m, 18°S) 282mm yr1 180|160h : 120 •|ioo 5.

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