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Extra info for Translation Universals: Do They Exist? (Benjamins Translation Library, 48)
14 (744-791) Andrew Chesterman that readers will become more tolerant of apparent non-nativeness; different cultures might differ considerably in this respect. One long-term effect of knowledge about S-universals on source-text writers might even be a greater concern for the clarity of the source text, in order to facilitate the translator’s task and lessen the need for explicitation. This in turn could lead to greater fidelity to the original. Contribution: methodological. The prime benefit so far of this kind of descriptive research has, I think, been methodological.
Translated by P. Carroll as On the best kind of translator. In D. ), Western Translation Theory from Herodotus to Nietzsche (pp. 22–30). Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing. Kenny, Dorothy (1998). Creatures of habit? What translators usually do with words. Meta, 43(4), 515–523. Klaudy, Kinga (1996). Back-translation as a tool for detecting explicitation strategies in translation. In K. Klaudy et al. ), Translation Studies in Hungary (pp. 99–114). Budapest: Scholastica. Kundera, Milan (1993). Les Testaments Trahis.
Characteristics of the way in which translators process the source text; I call these S-universals (S for source). e. characteristics of the way translators use the target language; I call these T-universals (T for target). T-universals are the descriptive equivalent to the criticisms of unnaturalness, of translationese, made in the pejorative approach. Below are some examples of both types of proposed universals. Note that these claims are hypotheses only; some have been corroborated more than others, and some tests have produced contrary evidence, so in most cases the jury is still out.