By Jacques Drillon
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Extra resources for Traité de la ponctuation française
Notable examples of PPs are locative complements, which are usually introduced by the preposition yú 于/於 ‘at, to’, as in: (11) 北学于中国(《孟子》) bei xue yu zhong guo north learn at central state ‘He went to the north to learn [it] in the Central States’ (Mencius) The PPs can also be adverbials, especially when they are formed with the preposition yǐ 以, as in: (12) 以羊易牛(《孟子》) yi yang yi niu with sheep change ox ‘Change the ox for a sheep’ (Mencius) 6 Ancient Chinese Sentences are also customarily divided into simple and complex types and can be further classified as declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences.
It covers a very long period, from the oracle bone inscriptions (OBI, the first Chinese inscriptions known to us, dated from the fourteenth century bce) until the nineteenth century. Three basic stages are generally distinguished for Ancient Chinese: (i) the Archaic period (shànggǔ 上古), until the second century bce; (ii) the Middle or Medieval period (zhōnggǔ 中古), from the first century bce to the middle of the thirteenth century ce; (iii) the Modern period ( jìndài 近代), from the middle of the thirteenth century to the middle of the nineteenth century.
The second infix, *-r-, is said to produce forms that are plural or collective in the case of nouns, and iterative, durative, or indicating effort in the case of verbs. There are also some bi-morphemic monosyllabic words in Classical Chinese, which result from the fusion of two morphemes. One of the most cited examples of this fusion phenomenon is the negative fú 弗, which is analyzed as a combination of the negative bù 不 ‘not’ and the third-person pronoun zhī 之 ‘him, her, it’. Among other contractions of this kind in Classical Chinese are to be found: zhī 之 ‘third personal pronoun’ + yú 于 ‘to, at’ > zhū 诸; wú 毋 ‘not’ + zhī 之 ‘third personal pronoun’ > wù 勿; yú 于 ‘at, to, from’ + zhī 之 ‘third personal pronoun’ > yān 焉; hú 胡 ‘why’ + 不 bù ‘not’ > hé 盍.