By Marianne Fay
The urbanization of Latin the United States has additionally result in the urbanization of its bad. this present day approximately 1/2 the region's terrible stay in towns. but the phenomenon of city poverty isn't one who is easily studied or good understood and coverage makers throughout Latin the USA are more and more attracted to coverage recommendation on easy methods to layout courses and guidelines to take on poverty. 'Urban bad in Latin the United States' argues that the reasons of poverty, the character of deprivation, and the coverage levers to struggle poverty are to a wide quantity site-specific. As such, the booklet seems at ideas to help the city negative in taking advantage of the possibilities provided by way of towns (deeper hard work markets, larger facilities and companies, higher freedom, and probably much less discrimination) whereas aiding them deal with the unfavorable externalities (high rate of housing and trouble of acquiring look after; hazards to actual safeguard linked to pollutants and environmental illness, but in addition crime and violence; different congestion bills, extra isolation and doubtless much less social capital)
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Additional info for The Urban Poor in Latin America
Average spending by all urban households is almost three times higher than that of rural households; the differential for the poorest households is much smaller. 0 10,122 1,681 3,668 1,571 Source: Adapted from World Bank 2003. Note: Values account for regional price differentials. S ETTING THE S TAGE 35 Some differences in labor markets are evident, however. Returns to education are somewhat higher in urban areas. Underemployment is a much more significant marker for poverty in urban areas. Self-employment is associated with poverty in rural areas but not in cities.
4). Education and health spending, for example, are proportionally higher for the urban poor than the rural poor. In education the differences arise primarily from spending on materials and books. For health, a higher proportion of urban residents seek care (and thus incur costs), and they are more likely to use private facilities, which are on average seven times more expensive than public facilities (World Bank 2003). Data for Mexico show similar results, although the urban poor there spend significantly more on housing (11 percent) than the rural poor (6 percent) (World Bank 2004b).
Many slums are built on unsecured land, often located in areas prone to natural disasters, such as flooding and landslides, or in close proximity to environmental hazards, such as landfills. In most cases, this is due to policy failures—housing construction norms and plot sizes that are out of the poor’s reach, distorted housing finance systems, and, most important, inefficient land policies and regulations. These failed policies lead to spatial segmentation, a key factor in social exclusion (Gould and Turner 1997; Cardoso, Elias, and Pero 2003).