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By James W. Covington

"The such a lot entire account of the background of the Florida Seminoles but undertaken."--John okay. Mahon, writer of History of the second one Seminole War The historical past of the Seminole Indians in Florida embodies an essential component of the tragic heritage of local and white American clash during the complete usa. Drawing on extensively scattered scholarship, together with the oldest records and lately came upon fabric, Covington provides us a whole account of the Florida Seminoles from their front into the kingdom nearly 300 years in the past, throughout the nice chiefdoms of Micanopy, Osceola, and Billy Bowlegs, to the present political fact of democratic elections. (In truth one girl, Betty Mae Jumper, used to be elected tribal chairperson in either 1967 and 1969.) After getting into the peninsula from Georgia and Alabama, the Seminoles fought 3 wars opposed to the whites. by way of 1858, on the finish of the ultimate battle, ninety percentage of the tribe were killed or forcibly got rid of to Oklahoma. those that remained in chickees within the swampy grassland of south Florida comprised one of many final tribes within the state to keep cultural independence from whites. With the drainage of the Everglades and extension of highways and railroads into the realm, the land the Indians lived on with no felony name grew to become top genuine property, and the Seminoles have been evicted through the recent white proprietors. Covington brings the background of the tribe into this century as he describes the start of Seminole relocation to reservations, their participation in global struggle II, the inroads of Christianity within the Nineteen Forties, and the alterations in tribal schooling, executive, and agriculture and enterprise ventures long ago 3 many years.

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At a spot near the mouth of the Ochlockonee River, as the director-general of the state of Muskogee Bowles established the "free Port of Muskogee," from which ships flying the flag of the state of Muskogee sailed forth to engage in peaceful commerce and raids upon other ships. One of the ships flying the Muskogee flag was the schooner Miccosukee commanded by Richard Power. Bowles sent out parties of Seminoles to raid ranches and plantations along the St. 88 The climax of the Bowles saga came in May 1803 when the United States and Spain moved in separate operations to terminate Bowles and the state of Muskogee.

Boards of Directors and Tribal Councils 293 Notes 299 Bibliography 341 Index 355 Page vii Maps Seminole Settlements in Florida before 1770 15 Battles and Events of the War of 1812 and the First Seminole War 44 Significant Sites, 18231850 105 Present-day Seminole Reservations 209 Page ix Preface This book was a long time in the making. I developed a fondness for the American Indian as a child in St. Louis, Missouri, reading again and again the accounts of Tecumseh, Pontiac, and Geronimo in Famous American Indians and later relating those stories to young campers in the YMCA summer camps where I was employed.

After the transaction the factor sent the goods by mule or horse train to the trading house headquarters in Charleston, Savannah, or Pensacola. To the hunters the relatively untapped Florida wilderness was a virtual promised land, filled with vast numbers of deer, bear, and other game. With the settlement of Georgia by the English in 1732, the excursions by the English and their American Indian allies into Florida became more frequent. A band of Tallapoosas and Yuchis raided Picolata in 1735, destroying it and forcing the Yamassees and Timucuans living there to flee to St.

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