By Ziya Gökalp
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In this situation one has vertical, not horizontal, religious groups and identification, and it would be hard for an all-Islamic movement to get far. The Catholic ex-president, Leopold Senghor, was sometimes ridiculed by Westerners for giving so much attention and patronage to Islamic orders, but in so doing he helped to perpetuate divisions among Muslims and to forestall Islamic unity against Christians and animists; his Muslim successor does the same. Among the highly educated there are movements for greater Islamic orthodoxy and all-Islamic identity, but as yet no major radical Islamist movements.
They were mobilised Fred Halliday 35 against a dictatorial political regime by a charismatic leader and by an ideology of revolutionary legitimacy. 7 In other words, the Iranian Revolution developed in the context in which populist movements have arisen in many other Third World societies. Even the religious character of the revolution is, in historical perspective, not so unique. History is replete with instances of rebel movements challenging temporal rulers in the name of God, and of clerical leaders organising such movements.
Among the highly educated there are movements for greater Islamic orthodoxy and all-Islamic identity, but as yet no major radical Islamist movements. In addition, Senegal has seen less rapid socio-economic change than Islamist-profile countries. A small Islamist current has, however, developed in recent years. Another non-Islamist area visited was West Sumatra, in Indonesia. Although there have been Islamist trends in Indonesia, I found almost none in West Sumatra, except one from a student of the Technical University of Bandung, Java, which is the centre of student Islamism.