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By Joachim von Braun, Ruth Vargas Hill, Rajul Pandya-Lorch

Have the lives of the world's poorest, neediest humans more suitable during the last few a long time? What rules have lifted a few humans out of the worst types of poverty, and what stipulations continue others mired inside of it? The Poorest and Hungry: review, Analyses, and activities solutions such questions, bringing jointly experiences of either what motives and what reduces serious poverty from a various crew of improvement experts. The publication makes a speciality of the poorest and hungry in society and identifies parts for motion. solid monetary development; distinctive social courses and assurance that put money into and guard food, future health, and schooling; and political and social inclusion of formerly marginalized teams end up the basic specifications for poverty aid, and this book's participants establish innovations for selling all 3. The Poorest and Hungry is a crucial source for policymakers, improvement experts, and others considering aiding the world's poorest humans.

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The merits of facilitating migration and the design of policies to facilitate it also vary from context to context. Policies to promote migration may include policies reducing the costs of obtaining documents for international travel (such as passports), reducing the costs of searching for new jobs by encouraging the development of recruiting companies, and developing financial institutions in rural areas to facilitate remittance flows (de Brauw, this volume, Chapter 15). Targeted Action on Nutrition, Health, Credit, and Education The policy responses discussed in this section correspond to the characteristics of persistent and extreme deprivation highlighted earlier and are designed to protect the poorest against vulnerability—in particular against ill health, which is one of the most common sources of vulnerability—and to facilitate asset creation by the poorest.

2007). Areas for Action Consistent and persistent patterns of poverty across continents highlight the fact that addressing extreme poverty and hunger often requires addressing social and political processes as much as economic issues (Sen 2000; Narayan and Petesch 2007; Green 2008). Therefore, addressing poverty and hunger is a complex challenge. As highlighted in the previous two subsections, persistent and severe hunger and poverty have many interacting causes, and no single approach will provide the solution.

For instance, in Guatemala small farmers have been found to forgo market income in order to have a certain supply of maize from their own production instead of more high-value crops. They thus incur the cost of an implicit “food insurance premium” of about twice the market price of maize (von Braun and Kennedy 1994). In Tanzania, a shift into low-risk, low-return crops by poorer households has been found to result in 20 percent lower incomes per unit of land for households in the lowest quintile compared with the richest quintile (Dercon 1996).

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