By S. R. Leather
Insect overwintering is an interesting strategy regarding many physiological, epidemiological, biochemical and behavioral alterations. The learn of the overwintering approach can provide an perception into the improvement of bugs, in addition to support us expect the styles of affliction epidemic and crop destruction as a result of a few species. This e-book presents a entire account of some of the varieties of insect overwintering and highlights very important parts of monetary curiosity.
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Additional info for The Ecology of Insect Overwintering
Indeed, several authors have suggested that an interaction between photoperiod and other environmental cues often provides a safety device in diapause determination (Danilevskii 1965; Lees 1968; Beck 1980; Takeda and Chippendale 1982). The most common factor interacting with photoperiod is temperature, which typically acts through three mechanisms: first, by setting upper and lower thermal limits between which insects respond to photoperiod stimuli, and second, by altering critical photoperiods.
The study showed that larvae of the black cutworm could survive many months of mildly cold conditions in a state on non-diapause dormancy. The magnitude of the temperature difference between thermophase and cryophase The importance of the magnitude of the difference between the temperatures of thermophase and cryophase has only been investigated in one species. Studies of the European corn borer revealed that, under laboratory conditions, small or large differences between the two temperatures appeared to have no effect on the induction of diapause and that the important factor was the duration of cryophase and whether the cryophase temperature dropped below the critical response threshold (Beck 1982, 1983a).
Reproductive diapause in the collembolans Orchesella cincta and Tomocerus minor is induced by photoperiod and temperature. Critical photoperiod estimated from field data lies between 11 and 13 hours and induction relies on field temperatures of between 10 and 16 °C (Woude and Verhoef 1988). Insects that have an identical critical photoperiod can still differ in their response to day-length as the steepness of the response curve may not be similar. Lees (1968) suggested that those species that were under greater pressure from natural selection for timing of the induction of the 30 Controlling stimuli Short day Photoperiod >- Long day Fig.