By Günther Theischinger, John Hawking
Полноцветный, детальный полевой определитель стрекоз Австралии.
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Additional info for The complete field guide to dragonflies of Australia
Isoclines for two interacting populations (N1, N2). (a) Isoclines intersect at point A, which is a stable equilibrium; (b) touching isoclines lead to extinction in the hatched region or populations are attracted to point B at the edge of the hatched region; (c) isoclines do not meet and populations are unstable. Therefore, only under condition (a) will mutualism exist. ) incorporating many mechanisms at the same time. This, of course, is only a useful first step and should be followed by more mechanistic approaches.
Density dependent interactions between mutualists can thus have very different outcomes ranging from negative to positive. Basically, this corresponds to the Allee effect (Allee 1949) for single species populations, where a critical minimum population size is necessary for survival and below which extinction occurs. But as the population grows negative density effects gain in importance as resources are depleted. The above results also suggest that there 34 Theories on mutualism Abundance of mutualist 2 (a) NE linearly increase (b) NE saturate (c) NE unimodal Abundance of mutualist 1 Fig.
Therefore, Wolin and Lawlor (1984) also explored the effects of mutualism at low densities of N2. Density dependent effects of mutualism at low densities of N2. If the per capita benefit provided by a given number of mutualists decreases exponentially with the density of N1 such a relationship could be expressed as: b ¼ b0 À aN1 þ mN2 eÀaN1 ; (3:21) d ¼ d0 þ cN1 : (3:22) Fig. 7e shows that in this scenario the equilibrium density may increase but not necessarily the intrinsic rates of increase.