By Clare Cook
This ebook bargains distinctive empirical insurance of the syntax and semantics of Plains Cree, an Algonquian language of western Canada. It combines cautious elicitation with corpus experiences to supply the 1st systematic research of the 2 exact verbal inflectional paradigms - self sustaining and conjunct - within the language.
The ebook argues that the self sufficient order denotes an indexical clause style with commonly used deictic homes, whereas the conjunct order is an anaphoric clause style whose reference will depend on ideas of anaphoric dependence. either syntactic and semantic issues are tested: at the syntactic aspect, indexical clauses are proven to be constrained to a subset of matrix environments, and to exclude proforms that experience clause-external antecedents or result in cross-clausal dependencies. Anaphoric clauses have an in different places distribution: they ensue in either matrix and established contexts, and freely host and perform cross-clausal dependencies. The semantic dialogue focusses totally on the context during which a proposition is evaluated: it exhibits that indexical clauses have absolute demanding and a speaker origo, in keeping with deixis on a speech act; anaphoric clauses, against this, use anaphoric dependencies to set up the evaluate context.
Data from Plains Cree is in comparison to the matrix/subordinate method present in English, to the clause-chaining approach of the Amele language of Papua New Guinea, and to Romance subjunctive clauses. The publication additionally offers the 1st micro-typology of pronominal marking and preliminary switch in Algonquian languages.
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Additional resources for The Clause-Typing System of Plains Cree: Indexicality, Anaphoricity, and Contrast
Diagnosing C vs. e. less structure, or that it is null—which should affect the form and function of the phrase it projects to. () a. YP ✟✟❍❍ Y XP ✏✏ content b. YP ✟✟❍❍ Y ZP ✟✟❍❍ XP Z ✏✏ ∅ content The structure in (b) more accurately models the pattern we see with clausetyping proclitics. In (a) the clause wâpahtam Jeff ‘Jeff saw it’ introduces a dependent proposition with the clause-typing proclitic ê-. If this clause-typing proclitic is absent, the utterance becomes ungrammatical.
Interpretations of irrealis ka- across Plains Cree’s orders a. independent order = future . . “â, êkota nika-pôsipayihon,” . . vai -sap ‘. . , “Well, I will jump on that,” . . ) b. conjunct order = irrealis nikî-kwêcimâw Nettie ka-pê-itohtêt. Diagnosing C vs. spec, CP Likewise, the suffix -i, which is glossed as a subjunctive marker in simple conjunct clauses (a), also appears in conjunct clauses that have clause-typing proclitics. In the latter cases it indicates plurality of inanimate referents, as in (b), or plurality of realis events (c) (see Mühlbauer for discussion).
When s/he saw him/her’ c. vta -dir - -subj ‘. . whenever s/he saw him/her’ However, these conjunct forms differ in terms of the morphology on the left edge. For example, the data in () illustrates three different clause-typing elements, all of which are associated with an ablaut process known in Algonquian linguistics as initial change (ic); these include the proclitics ê- and kâ-, (ablauted from i- and kî-, respectively) and stem infixation (-iy-). g. Wolfart :, who notes that ablaut seemed to be disappearing in favour of the ê- proclitic).