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By Roy A. Crowson

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Omma stanleyi (Al), L elytron, main veins labelled. C, costa + subcosta; Cu, cubitus; M, media; R, radius; ST, scutellary striole; 1A, 2A, 1st and 2nd anal. ) between " h a r d " and "soft" elytra. H e found no general structural features to separate Adephaga and Polyphaga, or the main series of the latter, but distinctive features were noted in some families of Polyphaga, particularly in the relative thicknesses of the cuticular layers (see C h a p t e r 9). Elytra, like wings, consist essentially of an upper and lower layer of cuticle, partly con- 42 THE BIOLOGY OF THE COLEOPTERA nected together by a series of exocuticular blocks (trabeculae), and partly separated by blood-spaces which may (on the courses of the veins) contain tracheae and sensory nerves innervating the macrochaetae etc.

T h e total thickness of the elytra is greater in large species, and relatively greater in those with hard elytra as a rule. Articulated macrochaetae are commonly found only on the upper cuticle, while the lower epicuticle tends to bear non-articulated outgrowths (microchaetae). T h e meeting of the two elytra in a straight line down the middle of the back is a very characteristic and diagnostic feature for adult beetles, though the feature may be lost in some of the forms with reduced or abbreviated elytra, such as the Xantholinini in Staphylinidae (F7), some of the Meloidae (T46) etc.

Cryptophagus sp. (T13), labium, ventral view. L, ligula; M, mentum. often the ligula developed into characteristic elongate hairy lobes (Figs. 21 and 310, p. 662). In some Nemognathinae (T46) the galeae are developed almost as in various bees and Lepidoptera, fitting together to form an elongate suctorial proboscis (Fuchs, 1974; Grinfeld, 1975). Reduction of the maxillary lobes to one, by loss of either the galea or lacinia, is found in various groups with actively feeding adults. Most frequently lost is the lacinia, as in many Ptiliidae ( F l ) , Lathridiidae (T28), and Cisidae (T33).

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