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By Donald H. Buckley (Eds.)

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Additional resources for Surface Effects in Adhesion, Fricti0N, Wear, and Lubrication

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With electron microscopy, however, dislocation concentrations of the order of 1011 and 1012 can be effectively studied. The etch pitting technique is limited to 108 because when etching the solid surface the dislocation concentration becomes so high that the etch pits begin to run together and it is very difficult to distinguish and count the separate individual etch pits in a solid surface, even with the highest magnifications of optical microscopy. The use of dislocation etch pitting for following the deformation behavior of solid surfaces and solid-state contact in tribological systems is of sufficient importance that a complete table of etchants which can be used 30 for etch pit dislocation detection is presented in an appendix to this chapter.

With most of these surface profilometric mechanical devices, this difference in magnification in the horizontal and vertical directions generally exists. The traces or profiles of the surface, therefore, are not a true picture of the actual shapes of the surface irregularities or asperities because they become distorted by this variation in magnification. One must correct for this variation by interpreting the actual shapes of the asperities or peaks and valleys on the solid surface. There are standards that have been prepared by those organizations that manufacture surface profilometers for reference purposes so that the Figure 2-14.

There are, however, some surface techniques that have been developed using ordinary X-rays. Some of these techniques are very useful in studying surface topographic characteristics. Probably the simplest of all is based on the Laue back reflection technique. This particular method is extremely surface sensitive, especially for high absorbing materials, since most of the information is derived from longer wavelength components of a polychromatic source. Many different geometrical arrangements using polychromatic radiation have been used but the Laue back reflection technique developed by Swink is probably of greatest interest here (ref.

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