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By Michael Cohen

The interval lined via this booklet witnessed an important switch in Allied process for the center East. Its concentration switched from Egypt to the states of the so-called northern tier of the center East: Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Pakistan. This booklet finds the level to which the united kingdom clung directly to great-power pretensions and used bluff, even deception, in an effort to supply the influence that it disposed of better army assets than was once in reality the case. It describes not just Anglo-American tensions within the center East, but in addition the americans' reluctance to take over Britain's former hegemony within the zone. ultimately, it unearths the level to which the Allies' courting with Israel used to be a continuing restraint upon their freedom of motion within the zone, and their skill to forge army alliances with Arab states.

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Additional info for Strategy and Politics in the Middle East, 1954-1960: Defending the Northern Tier

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100 In this context, the launching of the Sputnik rocket in 1957 was perhaps even more of an unpleasant strategic surprise to the West than the explosion of the Soviets’ first atomic device less than ten years before. Therefore, planning for the contingency of a nuclear war continued apace. ’ However, in the unlikely event that a general war did occur, the JSPC foresaw that it would be fought in two phases. The first, ‘a comparatively short initial phase consisting of an intensive exchange of nuclear blows and the beginning of air, sea and ground operations and deployments designed to achieve strategic advantage’; and a second, ‘of indeterminate length consisting of follow-up operations to achieve victory’.

The Russian Tactical Air Force . . 45 The British may have had military logic on their side, but American reticence, which originated with the highest political echelons, would prevent full Allied operational collaboration until the late1950s. In March 1954, the US granted the UK some $210 million in military aid, but at the same time rejected all British requests to discuss ‘joint strategic nuclear targeting or the establishment of formal links between SAC and Bomber Command’. It was not until the autumn of 1956, after the British V-bombers had demonstrated their operational ability at Suez, that the Americans agreed to begin joint planning.

Thus, on the one hand, he imposed reductions on the RAF’s bomber fleet; but on the other, he approved the continued development of the UK’s independent nuclear deterrent. 59 In no theatre would this be more apparent than in the Middle East. However, no matter which service delivered it, the UK’s nuclear deterrent was not expected to become operational before 1955 to 1956 at the earliest. Until that time, the UK would be absolutely dependent upon its Atlantic ally. The first British nuclear-equipped, long-range jet bomber did not become operational until 1955.

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