Download State Exam Maximiser by Соловова Е.Н., Солокова И.Е. PDF

By Соловова Е.Н., Солокова И.Е.

Книга nation examination Maximiser kingdom examination Maximiser Книги Иностранные языки Автор: Соловова Е.Н., Солокова И.Е. Год издания: 2007 Формат: pdf Издат.:Longman Страниц: 224 Размер: 12 Мб. ISBN: 978-1-4058-5639-3 Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:State examination Maximiser — пособие нового типа, которое помогает сформировать и развить умения рационального подхода к работе с экзаменационными материалами. Представленные в данном пособии материалы подготовлены с учетом спецификаций ЕГЭ 2000 — 2006 гг., требований Государственных образовательных стандартов для полной средней и профильной школы по иностранным языкам, а также с учетом перспектив развития ЕГЭ на 2009 г.

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Clearly, one of the advantages of this distinction is that it captures the fact that while what is old/given in the discourse will be familiar to the hearer as well, what is assumed by the speaker to be new to the discourse may not be new to the hearer. Chafe (1994) notes that Prince’s (1981) use of “brand-new” vs. “unused” is nearly identical to his use of “unshared” vs. “shared”. 2). I agree with Chafe’s (1994: 175) statement that “whether or not a referent is assumed to be newly activated in the listener’s consciousness is a different question from whether or not it is assumed to be already part of the listener’s knowledge.

11c). 12), which is from Chafe (1988: 17), both types of IU linkages can be seen. 12f), so and and then are explicitly used as IU-linking connectives, respectively. 12c), the conjunctive anyway occupies the complete IU by itself; this indicates the speaker’s momentary focus entirely on the linkage. 12e), falling or continuing intonation contours alone are used to link the IUs. Chafe (1988: 22–23) observes that unit linkages in spoken English are of a relatively simple nature. That is, English speakers tend to favor non-elaborate linking devices—using falling/continuing intonation alone or “handy” connectives such as and—to link one IU to another.

Pause: a pause at the beginning of the unit (in effect, between two units). d. anacrusis: a sequence of accelerated syllables at the beginning of the unit. e. g. of the last syllable in the unit). Du Bois et al. g. pause, lengthening) can occur for reasons other than an IU boundary. g. resetting of the baseline pitch level) may be hard to identify unequivocally under certain conditions. They therefore suggest that in especially difficult cases, the transcriber should weigh all of these factors together in order to arrive at a reliable determination of IU status (see Chafe 1994: 56–61; Cruttenden 1986: 35–45; Du Bois et al.

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