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Additional info for Standard Setting: A Guide to Establishing and Evaluating Performance Standards on Tests
Below Basic Students performing at the Below Basic level can typically perform simple reading tasks but have not yet reached the level of Basic. achievement might perform on a specific item. Scoring rubrics address only single items; PLDs address overall or general performance levels. This distinction is salient for planning and conducting standard-setting activities. In standard-setting sessions, it is customary to provide as much background as possible about the test. Frequently, the panelists actually take the tests and score them using scoring keys and guides created for and used by the professional scorers, thereby gaining some familiarity with the rubrics.
In this chapter, we identify several commonalities that cut across standard-setting methods. For example, we consider performance level labels, performance level descriptions, selection and training of standard-setting participants, and the kinds of information about their judgments provided to participants during the standard-setting process. qxd 10/23/2006 6:10 PM Page 36 36——Fundamentals of Standard Setting Table 3-1 Step Generic Steps in Setting Performance Standards Description 1 Select a large and representative panel.
However, even the most carefully designed and implemented standardsetting procedures can yield, at best, defensible inferences about those classified. Because this notion of inference is so essential to standard setting—and indeed more fundamentally to modern notions of validity, we think it appropriate to elaborate on that psychometric concept at somewhat greater length. According to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, “validity is the most fundamental consideration in developing and evaluating tests” (AERA/APA/NCME, 1999, p.