By Aaron Benavot, Cecilia Braslavsky, Nhung Truong
During this unique edited quantity, students with assorted backgrounds and conceptual frameworks discover how fiscal, political, social and ideological forces impression on institution curricula over the years and position. In delivering nearby and international views on curricular guidelines, practices and reforms, the authors circulation past the traditional suggestion that college contents replicate mostly nationwide priorities and subject-based pursuits.
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Extra resources for School Knowledge in Comparative and Historical Perspective: Changing Curricula in Primary and Secondary Education (CERC Studies in Comparative Education)
Results for the latter part of the twentieth century are congruent with those from around 1955 and 1965, suggesting continuity throughout the period. General images of the importance of individual, national and economic development appear at the earlier time, with these categories highest among the aims reported in 1955 and 1965. The major difference between the periods seems to be the substantial percentage of countries expressing the aim of personal and emotional development. The category of individual development in the earlier period seems comparable enough to personal and emotional development in the latter period to draw attention to the jump from 39 percent in 1965 to 73 percent in 1980 and 2000, and to suggest that education systems were increasingly taking account of the importance of the development of the individual as we moved through the twentieth century.
6. Developmental aims Development of the individual 1. Personal and emotional development 2. Creative development 3. Cognitive development 4. 3: Percentage of countries expressing each of eighteen aims of education, 1980s and 2000s, a by level of development b 47 39 36 16 54 61* 72 21 37 23 LDCs 2000 38 16 21 8 42 58 75 29 38 42 TRAN 2000 28 Educational Ideology and the School Curriculum 5 6 13 9 0 2 53 Normative aims: religion 17. Religion Other Aims 18. Benefit from globalization Political ideology Local ties Elite training Number of cases 58 9 2 0 12 12 31 25 62 10 2 7 10 8 23 26 29 0 10 86 28 38 7 4 10 25 0 17 55* 33 34 12 28 18 Table notes: Underline ( ) indicates difference between MDCs and LDCs is twenty percentage points or more.
Utopias differ from ideologies in that when they pass over into conduct, they tend to shatter, either partially or wholly, the order of things at the time (Mannheim 1959 : 192). Although utopias are potentially disruptive, they are often carried in existing ideologies and may provide the emotional energy for individuals and organizations: But every ‘actually operating’ order of life is at the same time enmeshed by conceptions which are to be designated as ‘transcendent’ or ‘unreal’ because their contents can never be realized in societies in which they exist, and because one could not live and act according to them within the limits of the existing social order.