Download Rio del Norte: people of the Upper Rio Grande from earliest by Carroll L. Riley PDF

By Carroll L. Riley

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Extra resources for Rio del Norte: people of the Upper Rio Grande from earliest times to the Pueblo revolt

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The upstream portion, however, he called Rio del Norte, as did Juan de Morlete, who led a party north in early 1591 to arrest Castaño and break up the expedition. By the time of Juan de Oñate and the colonization of New Mexico in Page 14 1598, the term Rio del Norte had become fixed; it was standard usage in the Oñate documents over the next two decades. Likely the Spaniards used the name because this was the main river of the "far north" province of New Mexico, although one of Oñate's priests in 1605 made an alternative suggestion that "Rio del Norte" was used because the river itself flowed from the north.

A month or so later, a captain of Coronado's, Hernando de Alvarado, and a priest, Fray Juan de Padilla, were sent with a few men eastward from Zuni to spy out the land of the eastern Pueblos. Around the seventh of September, 1540, they reached the Rio Grande at Tiguex, the towns of the southern Tiwa Page 13 Indians, in the present-day Albuquerque-Bernalillo region. Alvarado, or perhaps his companion, Father Padilla, gave the stream a Spanish name, Nuestra Señora (''Our Lady," that is, the Virgin Mary).

The Pueblo Indians knew other medicinal plants as well: yerba mansa,horsemint, sage, and many more. Other plants were collected for eating. The Pueblo Indians utilized a number of quelites,or potherbs. They collected wild cereal grains, the chenopods and amaranths, wild sunflower seeds, and perhaps wild potatoes. Nicotiana was collected wild and also cultivated as smoking tobacco, used especially in ceremonies. I will have more to say about the Indians' uses of plants in chapter 8. A variety of animals were hunted in prehistoric and early historic times.

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