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By David M. Whitacre

Reviews of Environmental infection and Toxicology makes an attempt to supply concise, severe stories of well timed advances, philosophy and important parts of comprehensive or wanted exercise within the overall box of xenobiotics, in any phase of our environment, in addition to toxicological implications.

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Adv Drug Deliv Rev 62:3–11 Environmental Applications of Chitosan and Its Derivatives 37 Khondee N, Tathong S, Pinyakong O, Powtongsook S, Chatchupong T, Ruangchainikom C, Luepromchai E (2012) Airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 for treatment of lubricants in wastewater. J Hazard Mater 213–214:466–473 Khor E, Lim LY (2003) Implantable applications of chitin and chitosan. Biomaterials 24:2339– 2349 Kim DS (2003) The removal by crab shell of mixed heavy metal ions in aqueous solution.

Alternate chitosan processing techniques, such as microbial or enzymatic processes, may become more cost-effective due to lower energy consumption and waste generation. Chitosan has proved to be versatile for so many environmental applications, because it possesses certain key functional groups, including –OH and –NH2. However, the efficacy of chitosan is diminished at low pH because of its increased solubility and instability. These deficiencies can be overcome by modifying chitosan’s structure via crosslinking.

2007c) Loh et al. (2008b) Loh et al. (2008a) Tang et al. (2008) Wang et al. (2010b) Sugunan et al. (2005) Radhakumary and Sreenivasan (2012) Constantine et al. (2003) Dykstra et al. (2009) (continued) Environmental Applications of Chitosan and Its Derivatives 27 Table 6 (continued) Chitosan derivatives HDACS-crosslinked chitosan Immobilized enzymes or nanoparticles Analyte Fe(III) Fe(III) and Cu(II) Cr(VI) Electropolymerized chitosanpolypyrole composite Electropolymerized GA-crosslinked-chitosan Chitosan Thiolated chitosan-MWNT nanocomposite Dansylamide-grafted chitosan nanoparticle Rhodamine-grafted chitosan Hg(II) and Pb(II) Hg(II) HDACS-crosslinked chitosan Various metal ions L-cysteine, thioglycolic acid, and 2-iminothiolane grafted chitosan Various metal ions Cu(II), Zn(II) and Mn (II) Cu(II) Hg(II) Hg(II) Reference McIlwee et al.

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