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K. M. K. Okoro et al. 1 Introduction Organotin compounds (OTCs) are organic derivatives of tin (Sn4+ ) and are characterized by the presence of covalent bonds between three carbon atoms and a tin atom. The organotins are designated as mono-, di-, tri-, or tetra-organotin compounds and have the general formula (n-C4 H9 ), Sn–X, where X is an anion or a group linked covalently through a hetero-atom (Dubey and Roy 2003; Okoro et al.
Methylcobalamin has been demethylated by SnCl2 in aqueous HCl solution, in the presence of an oxidizing agent (Fe3+ or Co3+ ), to form a monomethyltin species. Methyliodide (CH3 I) can also methylate tin species, whereas tin (IV) compounds do not so react. Chemical or biological processes are capable of methylating inorganic tin (II), Sn (IV), and methyltin derivatives under stimulated environmental conditions. Recently, methylation of butyltin species in sediments has been reported (Hoch 2001) and may arise from biological methylation of anthropogenic butyltins in the aquatic environment.
Goh and D. Oros from the Environmental Monitoring Branch of the California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Pesticide Regulation, for their help in preparing this chapter. References Amiard-Triquet C, Berthet B, Martoja R (1991) Influence of salinity on trace metal (Cu, Zn, Ag) accumulation at the molecular, cellular and organism level in the oyster Crassostrea gigas Thunberg. Biol Met 4:144–150 Apte SC, Gardner MJ, Ravenscroft JE (1990) An investigation of copper complexation in the Severn estuary using differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry.