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Tungodden, N. Stern and I. Kolstad (eds), Towards Pro-poor Policies: Aid, Institutions, and Globalization. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Krugman, P. and L. Taylor. 1978. ‘Contractionary Effects of Devaluation’. Journal of International Economics, 8(3), 445–56. Lustig, N. 2000. ‘Crises and the Poor: Socially Responsible Macroeconomics’. Economia, 1(1), 1–19. , K. J. A. Kose. 2003. Effects of Financial Globalisation on Developing Countries: Some Empirical Evidence. Working Papers, IMF, Washington, DC.

The neglect of high levels of inequality possibly explains the suboptimal results obtained in this country in terms of poverty alleviation and worsening of the distribution of market income during the 1990s. In contrast, the highly egalitarian conditions prevailing at the beginning of the reforms in China facilitated growth and poverty reduction. A second finding is that while some basic economic principles – incentives, certainty of property rights, reasonable macro balances, and so on – were followed in all successful countries analysed in this volume, the way these objectives were 24 Overview and Impact of Macroeconomic Policies pursued by national macroeconomic policies varied substantially depending on the structural and institutional conditions of each country.

A first step in this regard is to formally introduce a poverty target into macroeconomic stabilization models along the lines suggested by Chand in Chapter 3. Setting an explicit poverty target helps identify trade-offs between stabilization and poverty targets, measure the ‘sacrifice ratio’ of alternative approaches and determine the amount of international assistance or the nature of alternative policies that could ensure consistency between stabilization and poverty objectives. Exchange rate-based versus money-based adjustment This choice depends on a host of factors, and clearly there is no ‘one-size-fits-all’ solution.

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