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By G. Borjas, J. Crisp

This booklet examines the economics of immigration and asylum migration, targeting the commercial results of felony and unlawful immigration in addition to putting the learn of immigration in an international context.

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Extra resources for Poverty, International Migration And Asylum

Sample text

What makes this agenda so difficult is that immigration policy is itself endogenous, probably influenced by the same forces that drive world migration pressure. One way to get useful answers to this question about fundamentals is to compare the experience in the age of ‘free’ migration before 1914 with ‘constrained’ migration of more recent times. Second, the recent empirical literature has focused extensively on the effects of migration selectivity on immigrant outcomes. This literature examines the qualifications and labour market quality of immigrants upon arrival, and their subsequent economic assimilation relative to the native-born.

Its effect is positive, and it is large – suggesting that up to half of additional births ultimately spilled over into emigration. Of course, demographic forces can have two effects on emigration: directly, by raising the young adult share; and indirectly, by glutting the home labour market and thus worsening employment conditions there. Finally, a bigger stock of previous emigrants raised current emigration as the friends and relatives effect would predict: for every 1,000 previous emigrants, 20 more were ‘pulled’ abroad every year.

The stock of previous immigrants from a source country residing in the United States per 1,000 of the source country population has a significant effect. Evaluated at the mean, the coefficients imply that an addition of 1,000 to the migrant stock increases the annual flow of immigrants by 26 – an order of magnitude comparable with that found for nineteenth-century Europe. The coefficients imply that the stock of previous migrants raises South American migration by 49 per cent (high stock to population ratio) compared with East Asia (low stock to population ratio).

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