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Sample text

The mean itself is one type of welfare measure, and there are many others within the class of separable functions with more desirable (egalitarian) properties. With some extensions to cater for mean-normalization, one can also derive variances for estimators of inequality indices. Page 20 5 Some Examples We illustrate the quantitative importance of these considerations with analyses of household surveys from two developing countries, Pakistan and Ghana. What we measure for both countries are sample design effects.

Others allow it to be either with or without replacement. 3. The Ghana survey used ppes, adjusting the size of the cluster take on the basis of the ratio of actual to estimated cluster size. ) times the target cluster take size (in this case, 16 households). 4. Most strata have three stages, a couple have only two. (Footnote continued from previous page) to Jamaica as a whole would then depend on the (probably perfectly acceptable) judgement that the survey's sample frame differed little from the country as a whole.

However, in practice, in many surveys, systematic sampling is used at the first stage. These two methods work as follows. In both cases, all clusters in a stratum are placed in a list and their (estimated or actual) sizes, Mc, are cumulated, giving a series with typical element Say one wants to choose n clusters from a total of N. Using random sampling, one would simply pick n random numbers between 1 and RN. Using systematic sampling, one would define the sampling interval, s=RN/n. A random number, r, less than s would be chosen and the list of numbers {r, r+s, r+2s, .

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