By Maria Petmesidou, Christos Papatheodorou
Best economists, sociologists and social coverage specialists rfile with new and up to date empirical fabric the altering profiles of poverty and social deprivation in Southern Europe, Turkey, the Balkans, North Africa, and the close to East. What emerges is a comparability of social developments shared around the quarter, in addition to the massive variety of public responses and rules to the demanding situations of poverty and social inequality.
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Extra info for Poverty and Social Deprivation in the Mediterranean: Trends, Policies and Welfare Prospects in the New Millennium (International Studies in Poverty Research)
In respect of the $1 PPP poverty line, the incidence of poverty in the Middle East appears to be comparatively low. 34 Nevertheless, the headcount rate is still half that of South and East Asia and a third of that in sub-Saharan Africa. 412). 5 presents poverty trends in a few MENA countries for which there are available data on the basis of national poverty lines. Some countries – among them Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia and Yemen – have conducted household surveys since the 1980s. 35 In Egypt, Jordan and Algeria there was a large rise in the poverty headcount during the 1980s and early 1990s.
25 As argued by Diwan et al. (1998: 48), intense global competition makes it unlikely that the Middle East will experience an export boom similar to that of East Asia in the 1970s. 2 per cent in early 2004) despite comparatively high growth rates in the last few years, further aggravated by plant closures and relocation to cheap-labour Balkan countries, is a stark indication of the policy challenges faced by the country and the Balkan region in the European (and global) context’ (Petmesidou and Mossialos 2005: 10).
On the one hand, the dense networks of family/kin and community ties have for a long time counter-balanced the scarcity of welfare state support. 53 Under these conditions poverty phenomena remain highly invisible, barely reaching public debate and awareness54 despite their growing scale and intensity, especially over the last decade. Furthermore, changing socio-economic conditions have progressively weakened the very social fabric that sustained informal 30 31 Petmesidou and Papatheodorou support, and thus risks of falling into poverty have greatly increased (both in rural and urban areas).