By Alan Berryman
For over sixty years, knowing the explanations of multiannual cycles in animal populations has been a valuable factor in ecology. This publication brings jointly ten of the leaders during this box to ascertain the main hypotheses and up to date facts within the box, and to set up that trophic interactions are an enormous think about using at the least many of the significant average oscillations in animal populations that experience lengthy wondered ecologists.
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Extra resources for Population Cycles: The Case for Trophic Interactions
Jones, D. 1985. Parasite regulation of host insect metamorphosis: a new form of regulation on pseudoparasitized larvae of Trichoplusia ni. J. Compar. Physiol. (B) 155: 583-590. Miinster-Swendsen, M. 1979. ) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Entomol. Meddel. 47: 63-71. Miinster-Swendsen, M. 1984. ) and on the dynamics of a lepidopteran pest insect. /. Appl. Ecol. 24: 563-571. The Role of Insect Parasitoids 43 Miinster-Swendsen, M. 1985. ) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Anim. Ecol. 54: 683695. Miinster-Swendsen, M.
This was quite surprising, as the key factor (fecundity reduction) was expected to contribute significantly to the determination of R. The question that intrigued us was why time series The Role of Insect Parasitoids 39 analysis identified parasitoids as the major contributor to needleminer fluctuations while classical life table analysis identified reduction in fecundity as the key factor? The answer seemed to lie in the discovery of a phenomenon known as pseudoparasitism. 1 Pseudoparasitism Reduces fecundity When parasitoids attempt to deposit eggs in the body of their host, they first inject several biochemical substances, and sometimes a polydnavirus, that weaken the host's immune system and suppress gonadal development (Jones 1985, Brown and Reed 1997).
The period 1960-69 is represented by the number of damage reports submitted by Danish foresters. 2 Synchronous fluctuations of needleminer populations in 11 isolated spruce stands within a region of 70 km2 in North Zealand. 3 Densities (±SE) of E. tedella larvae descending from their host trees in November within one stand (thick line) and of parasitized larvae (thin line). 3 Life Table Analysis Life table and key factor analyses are traditionally used to identify the important factors acting on population dynamics (Varley et al.