By Walter Tötsch, Hans Gaensslen (auth.)
This paper combines facts on construction, on processing and formulating, on software, at the waste flow and at the chances for recycling polyvinyl chloride insofar as such facts has relevance for an review of environmental influence. it's meant to assist position the PVC debate on a factually well-founded foundation. The paper describes many, yet no longer all elements of the environmental results of a standard plastic. This e-book relies on paintings performed on the Fraunhofer Institute for platforms expertise and concepts study and especially on a document drawn up at the order of the study Centre Julich (Gaensslen, H. , Sordo, M. , TOtsch, W. : construction, Processing and Recycling of PVC. Order quantity 011/41072711/930, April 1989). we want to precise our due to Dr. Kollmann of KFA Julich for placement of this order. This booklet don't have come into being yet for the help given through many colleagues. Magdalena Sordo performed beneficial initial paintings which varieties the root of many elements of the publication. we wish to thank the subsequent as representatives of our different colleagues: Eberhard BOhm for evidence interpreting, Gunther Heger for the knowledge base researches and Joachim Waibel for generating the illustrations. The booklet has been translated by way of H. P. Kaufmann, Technical Translations, advertising & Advisory providers, London. we're in particular thankful to Harold M. Clayton and his colleagues at Hydro Polymers Ltd for proof-reading the English manuscript. vii Contents Preface 1.
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Additional info for Polyvinylchloride: Environmental Aspects of a Common Plastic
When a high degree of transparency is demanded, M-PVC is preferred because of its purity. S-PVC is dominant in processing plasticized material, notably cable and wire sheathings. Micro-S-PVC is used almost exclusively for paste processing. 3 shows which type is used for which application. 3 Application of PVC types PVC type S·PVC M·PVC Flexible- PVC Wire insulation Flexible film Floor coverings Profiles, hoses Coatings, pastes Injection mouldings ++ ++ ++ ++ + ++ + + + + + + Rigid PVC Films, slabs, sheets Window profiles Other profiles Pipes, guttering Blow mouldings Injection mouldings Records ++ ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++ + - ++ ++ ++ ++ + Micro·S - - E·PVC - + + - ++ ++ - + - - - - ++ + - + The pure polymer is almost never processed.
It is likely that the actual emissions would be much smaller. In chlorine production by the amalgam process, there are emissions of mercury into the products, the waste water and the exhaust air. These currently run at less than 3 g Hg/t Cl2 (without landfill) [2). Additionally, mercury finds its way to special waste landfills as impurity in poisoned catalysts, filter residues and replaced parts of plant. 1 t in 1985 [1). Chlorine: The chlorine contains only traces of Hg and these condense almost quantitatively on cooling.
404 - 498. 18. , Oekobilanz von Packstoffen. Stand 1990. Bundesamt ffir Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft (BUWAL), Schriftenreihe UmweIt Vol. 132, Bern, 1991. 45 4. 1 Processing methods PVC is converted by all techniques applied for thermoplastic materials. By far the most important process is extrusion, followed by calendering. Paste processing occupies the third place among the processing methods. In paste processing sufficient plasticizer is added to the resin to enable it to be processed as a paste.