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By Peter G. Fenemore (Auth.)

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382 pp. Richards, O. ; Davies, R. G. 1977. Imms general textbook of entomology. 10th edition. Vol. I. Structure, physiology and development. Chapman and Hall, London. 418 pp. Ross, H. ; Ross,C. ; and Ross, J. R. P. 1982. A textbook of entomology. 4th edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 666 pp. Snodgrass, R. E. 1935. Principles of insect morphology. McGraw Hill, New York, 667 pp. Chapter 6 Insect Identification and Classification* Insect identification and classification are two closely related but not identical topics.

Most insects in temperate climates therefore pass the winter (overwinter) in a Reproduction and Life Cycles 53 dormant or semi-dormant state. This can be any stage in the life cycle but is commonly the egg or pupal stage as these do not require food and can remain in an inactive condition for long periods. During the winter many insects enter a specialised condition of suspended activity called diapause. This is often initiated before the onset of severe adverse conditions by some environmental trigger (such as decreasing daylength) so that by the time winter strikes the insect is already dormant.

At the opposite extreme, the life cycle of aphids may take less than a week under summer conditions so that build up of numbers can be very rapid. Many important crop pests have short life cycles and the associated ability to multiply rapidly. Overwintering Moist tropical climates are favourable for insect development all the year round and reproduction is therefore usually continuous with generation succeeding generation indefinitely. Besides providing suitable environmental conditions, the tropics also ensure an adequate food supply at ail times of the year, except where severe dry seasons occur.

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