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By James G. Horsfall (Eds.)

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In this respect, it is interesting to note that the bacteria survive within the intestinal tract of the insect in all stages of metamorphosis including the eggs. Much more common is the spread of diseases by insects which apparently do not benefit from this transmission at all but merely act as vectors. The first report of such an insect transmitted plant disease was given by Waite ( 1 8 9 1 ) , who proved that the bacteria causing fire blight of pears are transported by bees and wasps while visiting blossoms in search of nectar.

Biffen ( 1 9 0 7 ) , during his studies on wheat genetics at Cambridge, was the first to discover that resistance and susceptibility to yellow rust (Puccinia glumarum) are inherited characters following the same rules as the inheritance of morphological characters. When his rust resistant varieties turned out to be susceptible in Australia there was much disbelief in genetically bound disease resistance. However, with the discovery of physiological races of the pathogen, Biffen's conclusion was generally accepted.

A disadvantage of the use of blue fluorescence may be that with other crops the same change of color is obtained if necrosis is due to different causes. Tubers of potatoes having internal necrosis initiated by the dry rot fungus Fusarium caeruleum display a blue fluorescence under ultra- SCOPE AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF PLANT PATHOLOGY 39 violet light, but the same color can be seen if they are attacked by Corynebacterium sepedonicum, the ring rot bacterium. Moreover sprain, probably a virus disease, gives about the same fluorescence.

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