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By R E Campbell

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2000). , 2005). One possibility is that melanin forms in response to lysis of oenocytoids in Lepidoptera or crystal cells in Drosophila and release of PO cascade components at the site of capsule formation. Another is that melanin forms in response to activation of PO cascade components that are also present in plasma. Regardless of its precise source, characterization of the PO cascade in M. sexta indicates that proPO forms a complex with proPO activating proteinases (PAPs), serine proteinase homologs (SPHs), and pattern recognition immunolectins that function as pattern recognition receptors and bind to encapsulation targets like nematodes (Yu and Kanost, 2004).

And Franz, K. (2003). Evidence for memory in invertebrate immunity. Nature 425, 37–38. Lavine, M. , and Strand, M. R. (2001). Surface characteristics of foreign targets that elicit an encapsulation response by the moth Pseudoplusia includens. J. Insect Physiol. 47, 965–974. , Reichhart, J. , and Hoffmann, J. A. (1996). The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spatzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell 86, 973–983. , and Lange, H. (2004). Lamarckian inheritance by somatically acquired maternal IgG phenotypes.

2001), while membrane bound PGRPs (PGRP-LC and its co-receptor PGRP-LE) and transmembrane forms of Dscam mediate phagocytosis of bacteria in Drosophila and the mosquito An. , 2002). The class B SR Croquemort in Drosophila and the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptorrelated protein LRP1 in An. , 2005) (Fig. 3). , 2006). Lastly, integrins are dimeric transmembrane receptors that consist of a α and β subunit. , 2005) (Fig. 3). Tetraspanin proteins have recently been shown to serve as ligands for integrins in M.

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