By Michael J. Soares, Joan S. Hunt
A suite of state of the art laboratory ideas for the learn of the trophoblast and placental biology. The concepts awarded variety from experimental animal versions, to animal and human placental organ and cellphone tradition platforms, to morphological, biochemical, and molecular suggestions for assessing trophoblast/placental progress, differentiation and serve as. quantity 2 presents comfortably reproducible protocols for learning trophoblast invasion, maternal immune mobilephone responses to being pregnant, and the hormone generating services of the placenta. There also are how you can examine the barrier functionality of the placenta, its function in regulating the shipping of food and wastes, and the variations of trophoblast cells and the placenta to sickness. Highlights contain suggestions to research trophoblast mobile interactions with the uterine vasculature and immune cells, and the endocrine features of the placenta. A spouse first quantity concentrates on equipment for examine embryo-uterine implantation, trophoblast mobile improvement, and the association and molecular characterization of the placenta.
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Extra resources for Placenta and Trophoblast Volume 2 Methods And Protocols (Methods in Molecular Medicine)
The movable jaw has a cutting edge and can be rotated through 360° to facilitate sampling posterior placentas (Fig. 2). In order to increase success, especially of obtaining myometrial spiral arteries, we perform biopsies after placental removal, having identified the site by prior ultrasound. The tip of the forceps is guided into the uterine wall adjacent to the placental site. The jaws are then opened and closed under ultrasound surveillance. Successful biopsy of the uterine wall has a characteristic tactile sensation and optimally yields samples of approx 5 × 5 mm (Fig.
4. An elastica stain such as acid orcein is useful for evaluation of elastica breakdown during physiological change of spiral arteries (Fig. 9C) (46). In addition, other antibodies reactive after paraffin-embedding are very useful, such as an endothelial cell marker (Von Willebrands factor, CD31, CD34, Ulex europaeus lectin), some leukocyte markers such as the macrophage markers CD68 and CD14, and the natural killer (NK) cell marker CD56, depending on the research program. Also, markers for cell proliferation (although extravillous trophoblast does not proliferate) or apoptosis may be of interest.
2. Rossant, J. and Cross, J. C. (2002) Extraembryonic lineages, in Mouse Development (Rossant, J. ). Academic, San Diego: pp. 155–190. 3. Audus, K. , Soares, M. , and Hunt, J. S. (2002) Characteristics of the fetal/ maternal interface with potential usefulness in the development of future immunological and pharmacological strategies. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 301, 402–409. 4. , and Huppertz, B. (2003) Endovascular trophoblast invasion: implications for the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth retardation and preeclampsia.