By Fritz Trillmich, Kathryn A. Ono
El Niño is a meteorological and oceanographic phenomenon, which happens at abnormal durations within the japanese tropical Pacific. Its most evident attribute is the warming of floor waters, which explanations huge, immense disturbances of the marine atmosphere. A critical Niño can also have an effect on continental platforms all over the world. This ebook gathers in a entire means the knowledge on hand at the results of the quite robust 1982-83 Niño on a bunch of marine mammals, the pinnipeds. It provides an research of the consequences of environmental rigidity at the populations of most sensible predators. information and interpretations are in line with a most unique selection of long term reports of pinniped inhabitants dynamics, habit and ecology which spanned the El Niño occasion. The responses of pinniped populations to the El Niño disturbance of the marine atmosphere additionally has very important implications for the administration and conservation of marine mammal populations.
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Extra info for Pinnipeds and El Nino: Responses to Environmental Stress
The total spawning biomass of the stock, which experienced a long-term decline between 1~75 and 1983, was not severely affected in 1983, but it reached its lowest level in 20 years in 1984 (Methot and Lo 1987; see Table 2). Anchovy were less available in surface waters to fishermen, and perhaps to pinnipeds, as a result of the deep thermodine during 1983. Aerial spotters detected few schools (CalCoFi 1984; R. Methot pers. ). This northward shift in the distribution also occurred for the southern stock which apparently moved into the Southern California Bight from Baja California (R.
1988) 1983/84 - Low Northwest Vancouver Is. C. Co ast Haist et al. (1988) 1983/84 - Average Availability abundance Southwest Vancouver Is. Species/stocks Table 2. (continued) w ~ ~ N' ~ >-.... ::l N Central British Columbia Sockeye Barkley Sound, Re. e. J ohnson (1988) PFMC (1989) PFMC(1989) PFMC (1985) 1983 - Low 1984 - Low 1984 - Low Johnson (1988) Nicholas and Hankin (1988) Johnson (1988), PFMC (1984) 1983 - Low 1983 - Average+ Northern Oregon Columbia River Tule Coho Oregon prod. area 1983 - Low Southern Oregon 1984 - Low R Holtby (pers.
Peruvian anchovy had decreased fat content; Invading species such as mackerel or tropical immigrants are unsuitable as pinniped food due to their size, strong defenses, and high swimming speeds; some of them also live in deeper water and do not form dense shoals like anchovy and sardine; In addition, these invading species are often predators of early life history stages of the normal pinniped prey; There may be major time lags in the recruitment of anchovy, sardine, pollock, capelin and other species caused by EN which render the feeding situation inseeure in the years following the event; Physical manifestations of EN are strongest near the equator and become attenuated towards higher latitude; biological effects are pronounced near the equator and on species that are near the equatorial ends of their ranges and have localized spawning grounds.