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By A. P. Martinich

Philosophical Writing: An advent, 4th variation, positive factors various updates and revisions to A. P. Martinich s best-selling textual content that instructs starting philosophy scholars on the right way to craft a well-written philosophical essay. * beneficial properties a wholly new bankruptcy on tips on how to learn a philosophical essay, new sections on quantification and modality, and rhetoric in philosophical writing, in addition to extra up-to-date essay examples * contains many new essay examples and an accompanying web site with extra subject matters and examples * strains the evolution of an exceptional philosophical essay from draft degree to final touch * Emphasizes what a scholar should still do in crafting an essay, instead of on what to not do * Written with readability and humor by way of a number one thinker

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31 Logic and Argument for Writing An argument may be sound, and yet fail to be cogent because its soundness is not recognized. An argument might be this way necessarily, either through the complexity of form that outstrips human comprehension or through the impossibility of gathering evidence needed to show that its premises are true. We are not really interested in these non‐cogent arguments, since there is nothing humans can do about them. If humans cannot recognize the validity, and the evidence is in no way available, then that is the end of it.

This is what you should strive for in your writing. If any one of these elements is missing, your argument will not be cogent. All of these elements are individually necessary and jointly sufficient to produce a cogent argument. In section 3 of this chapter we will examine the notion of cogency in more detail. For now we need to return to a fuller treatment of the crucial notion of validity, the aspect of an argument related to its structure or form. 2 Valid Arguments Recall the definition of a valid argument given in section 1: Df(3) An argument is valid if and only if it is necessary that if all the premises are true, then the conclusion is true.

Now it should be obvious that neither of these arguments is cogent even though one of them is sound. The problem is that the sound argument, whichever one it is, is not making itself known! Each argument is clearly valid. Both are instances of disjunctive syllogism. And the second premise of each argument is true. The locus of the problem is the first premise. If God exists, then the first premise of the First Argument is true in virtue of that very fact; and then the First Argument is sound. If God does not exist, then the first premise of the Second Argument is true in virtue of that very fact, and then the Second Argument is sound.

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