By Douglas Whitman
This ebook explores the profound value of phenotypic plasticity as a relevant organizing subject matter for figuring out biology. Chapters take a vast, integrative method of clarify how actual and organic environmental stimuli (temperature, photoperiod, food, inhabitants density, predator presence, etc.), impression insect biochemical, physiological, studying, and developmental strategies, changing phenotype, which then impacts functionality, ecology, life-history, survival, health, and next evolution. subject matters contain endocrinology, improvement, physique measurement, allometry, polyphenism, replica, reproductive and life-history tradeoffs, replacement mating and life-history ideas, density-dependent prophylaxis, physiological version, acclimation, homeostasis, heat-shock proteins, studying, adaptive anti-predator habit, and evolution of phenotypic plasticity.
Read Online or Download Phenotypic Plasticity of Insects: Mechanisms and Consequences PDF
Best entomology books
An entire figuring out of the biology and existence histories of pest species is key for all these fascinated by crop creation and crop safeguard. this significant new name presents finished assurance of significant insect and mite pest species, essentially in Northern Europe. Textbook of Agricultural Entomology is extensively divided into elements.
With as much as 1 / 4 of all insect species heading in the direction of extinction over the following couple of many years, there's now a urgent have to summarize the strategies to be had for measuring insect variety as a way to enhance powerful conservation innovations. Insect Conservation outlines the most equipment and methods to be had to entomologists, delivering a entire synthesis to be used by way of graduate scholars, researchers and training conservationists all over the world.
I spent 4 months in New Caledonia in 1971 with the article of constructing a quantitative survey of the night-flying macrolepidoptera with light-traps and an review of the Rhopalocera and microlepidoptera. This fieldwork was once financed via a central authority Grant-in-Aid for medical Investigations adminis tered via the Royal Society, and via a provide from the Godman Fund.
- Oogenesis: Methods and Protocols
- Ant Ecology
- Who's in Charge?: Free Will and the Science of the Brain
- Field Guide to Grasshoppers, Katydids, and Crickets of the United States
Additional info for Phenotypic Plasticity of Insects: Mechanisms and Consequences
Others suggest that plasticity stimulates evolutionary diversification by generating novelty (West-Eberhard 2003, Schlichting © 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC What is Phenotypic Plasticity and Why is it Important? % 2004), and/or via genetic accommodation. An example is dung beetles, where plasticity in body size may have subsequently stimulated evolution of testis size and alternative mating tactics (Simmons et al. 2007). Phenotypic plasticity may act as an evolutionary capacitor to shield genetic variation from elimination, only to release it under extreme environmental conditions (Masel 2005, Feder 2007).
A key to understanding how phenotypic plasticity can evolve is the concept of interchangeability (Fig. 8). Most traits are both genetic and environmentally influenced (Roundtree and Nijhout 1994, Bradshaw and Holzapfel 2001). An example is the pigment melanin, which is the end product of well-known enzyme chains (Baraboy 1999, Sugumaran 2002, Ito 2003). The sequence instructions for these enzymes are coded by DNA and are heritable (True 2003). Phenotypic Plasticity of Insects Fig. 7 Contd. © 2009 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC What is Phenotypic Plasticity and Why is it Important?
In contrast, plasticity may be favored in r-strategists because of their high rates of dispersal into new habitats. Polygenic quantitative traits should be more plastic than single locus traits (Roff 1996). Some models suggest that heterozygosity inhibits plasticity, because heterozygosity buffers environmental effects (see Scheiner 1993), but others disagree (Pigliucci 2005). If individuals cannot exhibit a reaction norm but groups can, then that reaction norm could feasibly evolve via group selection (Via et al.