By Dr. Kenneth H. Craik, Dr. Ervin H. Zube (auth.), Dr. Kenneth H. Craik, Dr. Ervin H. Zube (eds.)
The function of this ebook is to document on a chain of study workshops which tested where of environmental conception in a entire method of indices for assessing and tracking traits in environmental caliber. the categorical goals of the workshops have been to: (1) outline the state of the art in study on belief of environmental caliber and establish salient conceptual and methodological matters; (2) delineate strength makes use of of perceived environmental caliber indices (PEQIs) and comparable concerns relating to ways that PEQIs may perhaps increase implementation, revision, or refinement of coverage orientations; (3) determine the kinds of study which might check appropriately the efficacy of the improvement and the appliance of PEQIs; and (4) out line a pragmatic, pragmatic learn technique that pertains to capability makes use of and pointed out coverage matters. The workshops have been supported by way of 'a supply from the nationwide technology starting place, No. GSOC75-0782, and have been held in the course of the spring and summer time of 1975 in Amherst, Massachusetts, and big apple urban. Contributed chapters for this quantity have been commissioned with cash from the Institute for guy and atmosphere, collage of Massachusetts. medical participants to the knowledge of environmental according to ception have elevated considerably over the past decade, in addition to acceptance that this realm of data is important for an educated viewpoint on-the effect of guy at the atmosphere. whilst, there exists normal consensus that the sector continues to be diffuse and uncoor dinated (Lowenthal, 1972b).
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Of course, this approach will necessarily provide only gross indications of validity. However, if a large number of applications produce indices that generally conform to "reasonable expectations," confidence in the validity of the index will increase. The validity criterion is particularly critical for measurements of environmental quality. Once some environmental component comes to be represented by an EQI, there will be a strong tendency to base environmental decisions and policy, at least in part, on that quantitative index.
Decisions made and procedures adopted at any point in the process have important implications for the meaning or interpretation that should be assigned to the index. An index may nominally be a measure of air quality, for example, but it is important to understand that it is an index of air quality as air quality is defined by the entire measurement system. Thus, environmental indices must be developed with great care, at all stages of the measurement system that produces them. While there is no way to ensure that optimum procedures will be adopted at each stage, at least the procedures that are adopted should be made explicit so that the index can be properly interpreted and ,evaluated.
30 II/SCENIC AND RECREATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS It is vital, then, that this perceptual-judgmental basis of environmental quality assessments be formally recognized and systematically approached. A major objective of this chapter is to review the criteria appropriate for the development of methods for systematically assessing environmental quality; in particular, methods for achieving Perceived Environmental Quality Indices (PEQIs). WHAT IS AN INDEX An index is the culmination of a measurement process that consists of several stages.