By Steve Hindle
On the Parish? is a examine of the negotiations which came about over the allocation of terrible aid within the rural groups of 16th, 17th and early eighteenth century England. It analyzes the relationships among the iconic platforms of casual aid in which the laboring bad made makes an attempt to outlive for themselves; the increasing variety of endowed charity inspired by means of the past due 16th century statutes for charitable makes use of; and the constructing method of parish aid coordinated below the Elizabethan negative legislation.
Based on exhaustive learn within the information of the trustees who administered endowments, of the overseers of the terrible who assessed charges and allotted pensions, of the magistrates who audited and coordinated reduction and of the royal judges who performed such a big position in analyzing the Elizabethan statutes, the ebook reconstructs the hierarchy of provision of aid because it was once skilled one of the terrible themselves. It argues that receipt of a parish pension was once merely the ultimate (and not at all the inevitable) level in a chronic strategy of negotiation among potential pensioners (or "collectioners," as they got here to be known as) and parish officials. This operating subject matter is itself mirrored in a chain of chapters whose series seeks to reflect the adventure of indigence, relocating progressively (and by means of levels) from the networks of care supplied through family members and associates into the paperwork of the parish reduction method, emphasizing particularly the significance of work self-discipline within the contemplating parish officials.
By illuminating the workings of a aid method within which notions of entitlement have been either under-developed and contested, On the Parish? offers ancient point of view for modern debates in regards to the rights and tasks of the negative in a society the place the dismantling of the welfare nation means that there's, once more, no correct to aid from cradle to grave.
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Extra info for On the Parish?: The Micro-Politics of Poor Relief in Rural England c. 1550-1750 (Oxford Studies in Social History)
Cf. Ch. 2 below. ⁴⁷ M. G. , 1956); I. K. Ben-Amos, Adolescence and Youth in Early Modern England (New Haven, 1994), 69–83. ⁴⁸ P. Thane, Old Age in English History: Past Experiences, Present Issues (Oxford, 2000), 89–118. ⁴⁹ A. Froide, ‘Old Maids: The Life-Cycle of Single Women in Early Modern England’, in L. Botelho and P. ), Women and Ageing in British Society Since 1500 (London, 1991), 89–110. 26 Shift participate in dairying—milking, butter-churning—than in heavy ﬁeld work. Married women were invariably besieged by the demands of their children, and were therefore dependent primarily on their husbands’ earnings, which for the labouring poor were usually insuﬃcient to meet household needs.
The rest literally worked themselves to death. ⁴⁹ Most single women were employed either as domestics or as servants in husbandry, in which they were more frequently expected to ⁴⁵ D. Levine, ‘Production, Reproduction, and the Proletarian Family in England, 1500–1851’, in D. ), Proletarianization and Family History (London, 1984), 87–127. ⁴⁶ Kussmaul, Servants in Husbandry, 70–96; B. Capp, When Gossips Meet: Women, Family and Neighbourhood in Early Modern England (Oxford, 2003), 127–85. Cf. Ch.
A. Sharpe, ‘Enforcing the Law in the Seventeenth-Century English Village’, in V. A. C. Gatrell et al. ), Crime and the Law: The Social History of Crime in Western Europe Since 1500 (London, 1980), 105–7. ⁸⁸ R. W. Bushaway, By Rite: Custom, Ceremony and Community in England, 1700–1800 (London, 1982), 138. ⁸⁹ The value of gleaning in the early modern period is diﬃcult to reconstruct, although some contemporary comment was optimistic. The Leicestershire justices reported that, even in a dearth year such as 1630–1, the poor only began to complain ‘so soone as they had spent the corne which they had gathered by gleaning in the harveste’, which, they estimated, ‘was about Allhallowtide’.