Download North Korea Under Kim Jong Il: From Consolidation to by Sung Chull Kim PDF

By Sung Chull Kim

Examines inner alterations in North Korea lower than the increasing rule of Kim Jong Il.

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In contrast, imagine a case in which the political subsystem—for instance, the party-state in the Soviet Union, China under Mao, and North Korea under Kim Il Sung—would not admit further, indeed unofficial internal differentiation other than the functional differentiation of four subsystems. This would result in a degradation of the system’s viability, because of a lack of both interactive and selecting capacity to cope with the fluctuating environment. Even in a socialist system, it is necessary for its survival that the system accommodates unofficial internal differentiation, while maintaining a balance between the self-reproduction referring to the original identity for a certain degree of internal integrity, on the one hand, and the acceptance of a gradual transition in the original systemic identity and individuality, on the other.

Ii) TOE is the abbreviation of Ton(s) of Oil Equivalent. cgi (accessed on March 11, 2005). 53 While this death rate is not so high as those of other famines in socialist countries, the impact of this famine on the North Korean system was so severe. An abrupt collapse of food security was followed by an exceptional urban famine. 54 It has been said that special consideration for food distribution during the famine was given to the military, the residents of Pyongyang, and the people employed in priority enterprises.

With internal differentiation, the system becomes a more flexible and adaptable one in coping with its environment. In this respect, a system that exhibits a high degree of internal differentiation appears, at first glance, to be unstable, but is durable in the long run. Such a highly internally differentiated system is exemplified by a democracy. ”43 In other words, the internal differentiation in democracy increases internal diversity and dynamics whereby selforganizing networks among independent and autonomous actors are constructed.

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