By Geoffrey Hindley
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Additional info for Medieval Warfare
Emperor Charles the Bald ordered the building of castles in Germany in 862. Wherever possible stone was used for these simple towers, from an early date. The tower castles consisted of a ground-floor storage a well at modate centre. the lord Above was a and room with hall to accom- his followers. In time, the tower incorporated more rooms and grew in The central keep of the Tower of London, built by William the Conqueror, is the finest surviving example of the basic tower castle (83). A popular defensive device was to have the main entrance at first-floor level.
Combined with the high saddle, the stirrup gave the swordor lance-bearing warrior a secure seat on his mount (105). For added security he could stand in the stirrups while exchanging blows with the enemy. It was the genius of Charles Martel, or one of his advisers, that saw how the stirrup could allow the horseman to charge an enemy with lowered lance and still hold his balance under the force of the impact 106 and page 45 bottom). From that time on the armoured man. his horse and his lance became a thundering human missile.
The crack troops were the heavily armoured knights; the footsoldiers were usually a rabble of reluctant peasants. England was the first country to recruit more reliable fighting men, including mercenaries. During the Hundred Years' War 338—1453) between England and France, the profits from foreign war encouraged many a longbowman to be( 1 By then, however, the horseman's long supremacy in battle was doomed. The mounted soldier was more than a military machine; he was a symbol of landed privilege in European society.