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Extra info for Kindergarten to Grade 12: English as a Second Language Literature Review Update
This awareness supports the phoneme blending necessary for decoding words (Roberts & Neal, 2004). Phonemic awareness upon entry into kindergarten and first grade has been demonstrated to predict the acquisition of reading ability (Snider, 1997). An examination of the effectiveness of phonemic awareness instruction in five year old ESL learners indicated that compared to a control group, students who received instruction in this approach showed greater phonemic awareness, phonics knowledge, and scored higher on standardized tests of reading and writing one year later (Stuart, 1999).
The teacher moves from student to student monitoring progress, offering suggestions, helping children write and rewrite their drafts. Typically, however, teachers of ESL students tend to view feedback as a passive process and focus on “fixing-up” a finished product rather than as a developmental process (Hyland, 2000). Research indicates that ESL writers require extensive communication about approaches to writing and feedback strategies and not just feedback based on writing problems (Hyland, 2000).
Primary language use has been described as a central pillar that supports literacy development across instructional approaches for English learners (Dalton, 1998). , Nichols, Rupley, & Webb-Johnson, 2000; August & Pease-Alvarez, 1996), that L1 development at home or in the community be supported and encouraged (Miller & Endo, 2004; Rosberg, 1995; Shore, 2004), and, if feasible, that schools with large numbers of ethnic-group members offer instruction in L1 (Bankston & Zhou, 1995). - 43 - October 2009 ESL Literature Review Update Update: Authors continue to identify strategies for first language development.