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51 A Modern Dualist Revival Modern orthodoxy thus combines a functionalist view of mental roles with a physicalist account of how those roles are filled. Mental states are constituted by causal structures, and these structures are realized in humans and other creatures by physical mechanisms. This modern orthodoxy highlights the "hard problem" of consciousness. It offers an entirely scientific, objective account of the mind, as a causal structure built of entirely physical materials. 52 One possible response to the hard problem is to insist that the mind must inhabit a separate non-physical realm after all.

But, at the same time, contemporary functionalists see no reason to doubt that the mechanisms are physical - the components of your mind are made of matter, just as much as the components of your desktop computer. 51 A Modern Dualist Revival Modern orthodoxy thus combines a functionalist view of mental roles with a physicalist account of how those roles are filled. Mental states are constituted by causal structures, and these structures are realized in humans and other creatures by physical mechanisms.

For functionalists, mental states were conceived abstractly, in terms of the causal roles they play, rather than in terms of their material make-up. 45 The Mind as the Brain's Software An analogy is often drawn with the modern digital computer. We can distinguish the "hardware" of a computer from its "software". The "hardware" is the physical construction of the machine, the arrangement of silicon chips, or transistors, or radio valves, or indeed steel wheels and cogs, depending on what the computer is made of.

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