By Pedro Barbosa (Auth.)
FROM THE PREFACE: The abundance of bugs can switch dramatically from new release to iteration; those generational adjustments could take place inside a becoming season or over a interval of years. Such notable density alterations or ''outbreaks'' might be abrupt and ostensibly random, or inhabitants peaks may perhaps ensue in a roughly cyclic fashion....The objective of this e-book is to replace and improve present pondering at the phenomenon of insect outbreaks. The participants have reviewed appropriate literature so as to generate a synthesis supplying new thoughts and significant choices for destiny examine. extra importantly, they've got offered new principles or syntheses that may stimulate advances in considering and experimentation
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The Douglas fir tussock moth was reported in all the samplings, although its populations were at relatively low densities. The cosmopolitan nature of the tussock moth even at low numbers suggests that it may have a wide tolerance for different environments, which is an expected characteristic of opportunistic species (McNaughton and Wolf, 1970; Pianka, 1970). Information on fecundity is scarce for most of the species recorded in Table 1. The outbreak species are the only group that has been studied in any detail, so estimates of egg production are available for three of those species.
An impressive variety of caterpillars are found on the foliage of trees, yet surprisingly few species ever reach outbreak numbers (see Chapter 6, INSECT OUTBREAKS 31 32 Richard R. M a s o n this volume). Ecologists have recognized for years that any random sam ple of a natural community usually yields many species with a few individ uals and only a few species with many individuals (Preston, 1948; Wil liams, 1960). The corollary is that the number of species that increase to high population densities is small compared with the vast majority of species that persist over time at low and stable densities.
V. (1984). "Population Dynamics of Forest Insects" (in Russian). Nauka Publ. House, Sib. , Novosibirsk. , and Ikeda, T. (1984). The Japanese pine sawyer beetle as the vector of pine wilt disease. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 29, 115-135. Leopold, A. (1947). " Scribner's New York. Lotka, A. J. (1925). " Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Mary land. McGregor, M. , Oakes, R. , and Meyer, Η. E. (1983). Status of mountain pine beetle, Northern Region, 1982. USDA For. , North. Reg. State Priv. For. Rep. 83-16. McLeod, J.