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By V. Alistair Drake, A. Gavin Gatehouse

Migration is a key procedure within the inhabitants dynamics of many bugs, together with probably the most destructive pests. This ebook experiences present realizing of the ecological, behavioral, physiological, and genetic bases of insect migration. the 1st half describes migration structures in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the USA, with an emphasis at the position of local climate and weather. Secondly, is a attention of bugs' edition to migration; it covers aerodynamics and energetics, the mixing of migration in insect existence cycles, environmental and genetic legislation of migratory strength, and the evolutionary implications of habitat heterogeneity and variability. The ebook then addresses the appliance of this information to operational pest forecasting.

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Extra resources for Insect Migration: Tracking Resources through Space and Time

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Movements then at higher latitudes are restricted by low temperatures and by breeding, and directions are variable, because of the influences of the southern fringes of temperate-latitude mobile cyclones and anticyclones (Fig. 3d). Breeding on winter and spring rains in northwestern Africa and the Middle East is followed by downwind movement of the new-generation swarms southward into the monsoon breeding areas (Fig. 3a,b), although tracks may be tortuous if influenced by several wind systems. Breeding at this time of year also takes place in countries around the southern Red Sea, from where new-generation swarms move usually southwards and westwards, but also northwards ahead of cold fronts.

Bulletin de la Murithienne, 90, 75-112. , Goeldlin, P. -P. (1969). Essais de marquage et de reprise d'insectes migrateurs en automne 1968. Mitteilungen Schweizerschen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 42, 140-66. In French, English summary. D. & Bissan, Y. (1990). Progress in controlling the reinvasion of windborne vectors into the western area of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 328, 731-50. R. (1968). A possible method of evolution of the migratory habit in butterflies.

E. (1982). Windborne Pests and Diseases: Meteorology of Airborne Organisms. Chichester: Ellis Horwood. E. (1985). Windborne migration of Heliothis armigera (Hiibner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to the British Isles. Entomologist's Gazette, 36, 15-20. E. (1986). Windborne migration in the Middle East by the moth Heliothis armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ecological Entomology, 11, 467-70. , Megenasa, T. W. (1989). Onset and spread of an African armyworm upsurge. Ecological Entomology, 14, 311-33.

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