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By George Harwood Phillips

The origins of the Reservation method in California, 1849-1852.

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Extra info for Indians and Indian Agents: The Origins of the Reservation System in California, 1849-1852

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Chape prohibited the release of the children, and Martín retreated to his mission empty-handed. Even when successful in recruiting gentiles, the padres found it difficult to keep them at the missions. Many of the recently incorporated Indians, especially the adults, fled to the interior at the < previous page page_23 next page > < previous page page_24 next page > Page 24 first opportunity, thus forcing the Spanish to send out expeditions to bring them back. Penetrating the interior, however, became increasingly dangerous.

The hostilities developing between Californios and immigrants intensified in May 1846, when the United States declared war on Mexico. In June American settlers seized Sonoma. S. Marines and a battalion of settlers led by John Frémont occupied Los Angeles. The following month, however, the Mexican residents of Los Angeles rose in rebellion and drove the Americans from the pueblo. The rebellion spread to other areas, but fear of leaving their ranchos undefended against Indian stock raiders prevented many rancheros from joining the rebels.

On occasion expeditions into the interior consisted entirely of neophyte auxiliaries. Early in 1816 Socio, a neophyte from Mission Soledad, led a party of Indians into the Tulare Valley. The neophytes recovered thirty horses but subsequently lost twenty when fugitives raided their camp. Although commanded by Father Luís Antonio Martínez, neophytes entered Bubal of the Wowol in May 1816, capturing two women and a man and setting the village on fire. Late the following year, a party of neophytes from Mission La Purísima, commanded by a neophyte called Odórico, visited a village of the Tulamni (Yokuts).

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