By Joseph Manzione
What occurred to the Sioux after Little Bighorn? within the wintry weather of 1877, many escaped with Sitting Bull to Canada, precipitating an overseas incident and atmosphere 3 governments at one another for 5 years. answer got here simply in 1881 with the dying of the buffalo herds within the Northwest Territories. confronted with hunger, the Sioux again to the United States.
Relying upon fundamental resource records in either the U.S. and Canada, Manzione skillfully illustrates how international locations struggled to regulate a in all likelihood explosive border state of affairs whereas steadfastly having a look the opposite direction as a valiant tradition got here to its sour fate.
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Extra resources for I Am Looking to the North for My Life: Sitting Bull 1876 - 1881
They not only apprehended lawbreakers, but acted as magistrates, passing judgment and enforcing penalties. Their civil and legal authority in the Territories could not be challenged, and their interpretations of the law and the good of society were tantamount to fiat. The Police became symbols of order, justice, and national authority in a nation that coveted all three. They evolved a myth-not unfounded-of superb competence. It served them well, both in Ottawa and on the frontier, where psychology was an important tool of deterrence.
28 Congressional Record, 44th Cong. , 15 August 1876, 5674-75 and 5694-96. S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Annual Report, 1876, 411. Page 18 was unsatisfactory. When Col. Nelson A. Miles stepped off the gangplank of the steamer "Durfee" and onto the muddy embankment of the Yellowstone River in late July, he was not happy with what he saw. In a letter to his wife, he complained about Gen. Alfred Terry's troops: I must say that I found matters entirely different from what I expected. I never saw a command so completely stampeded as this, either in the volunteer or regular service, and I believe without reason .
Portrayed in this manner, Sitting Bull and the Sioux posed a problem for the government and those who supported reform of federal Indian policy. 10 But this "enlightened" view did not apply to nonreservation Indians who lived and hunted beyond the frontier. Public opinion was fickle, and changed with the circumstances. A single incident might engender sympathy or hatred for the Sioux. 11 Nonreservation Indians threatened white society. The threat could be the expense of another Indian war, a blow to the pride and national spirit of Americans who believed in the superiority of the white race and the strength and goodness of American culture, the example set for reservation Indians, or the physical anxiety felt by citizens of the towns and mining camps on the western frontier.