By Mark Stiger
The original geophysics of Colorado’s higher Gunnison Basin offers a wealthy archaeological rfile of over 8,000 years of environmental and cultural switch. In Hunter-Gatherer Archaeology of the Colorado excessive nation, Mark Stiger provides not just an summary of previous examine carried out within the Basin but additionally the numerous new findings and interpretations from his personal examine. Anchored within the substantial physique of knowledge that was once collected via Stiger in the course of 8 years of labor at Tenderfoot--a huge lithic-scatter web site as soon as classified as "insignificant"-as good as similar facts from a number of different websites within the surrounding sector, this significant new contribution to archaeology within the southern Rocky Mountains makes use of an organizational method of describe and interpret prehistoric cultural swap throughout a large quarter of western Colorado. Stiger examines discoveries made via different archaeologists in the course of past excavations within the zone and opinions the dominant conventional box equipment and social motives of prehistory. by utilizing facts recovered in multi-year repetitive floor collections, he questions the direct interpretation of survey info and explores the benefits of horizontally broad block excavations. He additionally investigates how dramatic environmental alterations affected human diversifications by means of studying the region’s floral and faunal utilization styles and its ordinary historical past via paleoenvironmental proof. The artifactual facts from Tenderfoot and comparable websites exhibit how cultural switch was once mirrored within the homes, video game drives, firepits, stone instruments, and debitage over 8,000 years. utilizing this data, Stiger explains the cultural series present in the higher Gunnison Basin and probes its connections to cultural adjustments within the American Southwest and West. finally, he proposes the appliance of non-traditional theoretical and methodological methods derived from his personal paintings to extra common difficulties of archaeological learn. Addressing a long-neglected zone of yank archaeology, Hunter-Gatherer Archaeology of the Colorado excessive state is vital studying for students drawn to the prehistoric archaeology of the West.
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Extra resources for Hunter-Gatherer Archaeology of the Colorado High Country
Because of the probability that the various Numic-speaking groups were relatively recent immigrants into the Rockies” (Black 1991:4). , and might end in the Historic period if Numic groups like the Ute and Shoshone had local ancestors” (Black 1991:21–22). This latter definition of the Mountain tradition and Black’s (1991:22–23) research strategies are aligned with those of Rouse’s (1972) ethnic classification. Black supports his concept of the Mountain tradition: “While some may view this hypothesis as overly cultural historical given today’s research preferences, it is also true that many current interpretations of mountain prehistory lean too heavily on frameworks established for lowland regions, without considering the upland evidence on its own merits” (Black 1991:2).
It would be an unchanging sequence of rare, temporary camps and few artifacts. Archaeological sites would represent 18 Hunter-Gatherer Archaeology of the Colorado High Country at most a couple of weeks of occupation. Firepits and ephemeral structures such as windbreaks might be found. Materials from an 8,000-year-old site would exhibit no technological or cultural differences from those found in a 1,000year-old site. It would appear that no valuable information can be obtained from Archaic sites.
P. ” Conversely, if artifacts or features appear similar to each other, the culture that produced them must be socially homogeneous and distanced from outside influences. ” PROBLEMS WITH DETECTING SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD Which artifacts, technologies, and features carry ethnic information? No recognized criteria exist for use in determining which archaeological items might carry such information. According to Reed (1984:80–81), some of the traits that can be used to trace Numic peoples are ceramics, wickiups, projectile points, and stone knives.