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Tueor, etc. The problem, of course, is that Anatolian already has a middle, which contrasts with the active in both ḫi-and mi-verbs. Rosenkranz therefore seeks to distinguish two varieties of present middle in pre-Hittite—one an oppositional mediopassive with ‘r-endings’ directly ancestral to Hitt. 1 sg. -(ḫ)ḫa(ri), 2 sg. -(t)tati, -(t)ta(ri), 3 sg. , and the other a deponent type in *-ḫa + i, *-ta + i, *-a + i, which gave rise to the ḫi-conjugation. 43 43 In the plural, of course, the perfect and the middle endings were quite distinct, and the plural ḫi -conjugation endings are decidedly closer to those of the perfect than those of the middle.

Skōb : pl. *skabum is striking but not decisive. 32 Morphological Preliminaries §24. The perfect indicative was characterized by special endings, which can be straightforwardly reconstructed in the singular as 1 sg. *-h2e, 2 sg. *-th2e, 3 sg. 62 The situation in the plural is less clear. In the 1 pl. Greek and Latin are uninformative, having extended -μεν (ἴδμεν) and -mus (meminimus), respectively, to all moods and tenses. Classical Sanskrit, which elsewhere distinguishes between primary -maḥ and secondary -ma, regularly shows -ma in the perfect (vidma).

1, 2 pl. ). In the indicative, there is considerable evidence to show that the perfect stem in PIE could be combined directly with the active secondary endings to yield a stative preterite—the so-called pluperfect—and an augmentless ‘injunctive’, used, for example, in inhibitive sentences with the particle *méh1 (Ved. mā́, Gk. 71 The injunctive construction is represented in the Rigveda by mā́(kiḥ) … dadharṣīt i. 183. 4, iv. 4. 3 (with -īt for *-t) and mā́ … siṣetVIII. 67. 8 (: si‘bind’, 69 Here too belongs the preterite optative in Germanic (type Go.

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