By Ayden Tajahmady
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1). The adaptive immune system comprised other types of lymphocytes, which are preprogrammed to respond to specific antigens during maturation in the thymus (T cells) and bone marrow (B cells). Their activation most often requires interaction with APC and takes several days to peak. The Placenta: From Development to Disease, First Edition. Edited by Helen H. Kay, D. Michael Nelson and Yuping Wang. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Published 2011 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 1 Cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems.
P1: SBT Color: 4C c04 BLBK348-Kay December 27, 2010 CHAPTER 4 16:37 Trim: 246mm X 189mm Printer Name: Yet to Come Immunologic Aspects of Pregnancy 4 Highly sensitive mechanisms for detection of fetal cells and DNA in maternal blood have been established and represent a key technical innovation in noninvasive prenatal genetic diagnosis. Clinical usefulness of these technologies includes detection of genetic disorders and fetal sex determination. 5 Comparative studies on normal, healthy, pregnant women and age-matched women exposed to fetal blood cell antigens or infectious microorganisms as well as women suffering common problems of pregnancy such as PE demonstrate clearly that when in excess, substances associated with normal immunity and healthy pregnancy can impede the progress and quality of gestation.
Either directly or indirectly, fetal tissues program the maternal uterine cells for tolerance. The predominance of the innate immune system in the pregnant uterus is one example of the successful mammalian accommodations for avoiding destruction of the fetus made by an outraged maternal immune system. The observation that the maternal leukocytes are in suppressive rather than attack mode is consistent with the postulate that resident and incoming leukocytes are environmentally programmed to avoid killing fetal cells.